1. Chapter 8 Small group (1 page and a half)
  2. Define small groups and identify some of their uses in social work practice.
  3. Critique (provide an analysis) of the five theories of small group processes: Psychodynamic Theory, Symbolic Interaction Theory, Status Characteristics and Expectation States Theory, Exchange Theory, and Self-Categorization Theory.
  4. The International Association for Social Work with Groups is an organization for social workers interested in working with groups.  To become familiar with this organization please visit their website below and answer the following questions below:

  1. a)  Read the information under the “About” tab; then go to the “Resources” tab and read “Practice Standards.”  What theory or theories of group work seem to serve as the basis for the standards?
  2. b)  Go to the “Resources” tab and locate information about a type of group that interests you.  How you could use the information in developing a group with a population you plan to work with.
  3. c)  Write a paragraph about ways in which the website does and/or does not convey a sense of an international community of social workers involved in providing services through the modality of group work. Do you consider this an online community?


  1. “Educated a Memoir” by Tara Westover (2 pages)
  2. What groups does the main character in your memoir belong to?


I think that Tara Westover, the main character of my memoir, belongs to Group Work Journals. Because she narrative her life journey and explaining her life change over time and who she couldn’t accept the life that her family wanted for her, which made her loosed connection with most of her family members. She is a resilient woman who overcame all challenges and violence that she faced as a child and a teenager. I also think that Westover could also belong to Teaching Group Work. By using her experience, she will be able to show others the power of education. She also could be a model for her students.

  1. Using the threeperspectives listed below, describe what the main character is going through and provide a rationale of why you chose this perspective.


“The psychodynamic perspective is concerned with how internal processes such as need, drives, and emotions motivate human behavior” (Hutchison, 2017, p 43). Westover felt that her father has the power over her mother as he had over her as a child. She did not want to become like her mother. Westover preferred to go to college and meet new people. She wanted to escape from her isolationist Mormon family. Her emotions of fear of being like her mother, her only sister Audrey, and Sadie, the woman who her brother, Shawn, dated. Her feeling of fear that she might lose the first boy she loved, Charles, drove her to laugh loudly when her brother shown was physically abusing her. The feeling of fear of losing her brother, Shawn, because of the car accident, drove her to do not listen to his father for the first time. These feelings and needs forced her to behave the way she did.

Developmental perspective focuses on “how human behavior unfolds across the course, how people change and stay the same over time. Human development is seen to occur in clearly defined stages based on a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes” (Hutchison, 2017, p 46). Westover changed over time. As a child, she did whatever her father commended. Even though her brother hit her, Westover did not tell her parents. She hated the fact that her brother, Tyler, lived the family house for education. Westover felt that Tyler betrayed his family. She accepted the fact that she would marry and have children as her mother. Westover thought that her father is 100% right in whatever he said. After some experiences, such as Y2K, she began to understand that she was wrong. As an educated person, however, she became aware that her father might have bipolar illness. She also became more understandable and developed a secure connection with Tyler

According to the social behavioral perspective, “human behavior is learned as individuals interact with their environment” (Hutchison, 2017, p 48). When Westover moved to live with two roommates Mary and Shannon, she got shocked by their “immoral” outfits. She thoughts wouldn’t easy to live with them, but she used to do that. “learned helplessness in which a person’s prior experience with environmental forces has led to low self-efficacy and expectations of efficacy, a point also made by some feminist theories” (Hutchison, 2017, p 50). Knowing that males have the power over females in her family, Westover did not tell her parents about the physical abuse that Westover was facing. She even did not ask her abuser to apologize. Westover quickly accepted her brother to apologize when he asked for it. Furthermore, because Westover was embarrassed one time by asking a question in the class, she did not ask any item in the whole semester. However, by meeting some people such as Dr. Kerry, Jonathan Steinberg, Dr. David Runciman helped her and encouraged her to trust herself.

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