Forest Community

Principles of Ecology BIO 3614

Forest Ecology Lab

Part 1: Forest


For this assignment: we will collect abiotic and biotic data in the Kennedy reservation.  You will use this data to write a scientific research paper.  The paper will have an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and literature cited section.



Forest communities cover approximately 50% of the North American continent, and they provide valuable habitat for a large number of animal species, as well as a variety of commodities for human consumption (lumber, maple syrup, fungi).  Deciduous forests are composed of trees which drop their leaves in autumn in the temperate regions and during the dry season in more tropical areas.  Coniferous forests are composed of cone-bearing trees that retain their leave through the winter.

Forests are also classified by how they have been impacted by human development or major disturbance.  Virgin (primary) forests refer to an area that has reached maturity (natural succession) without human influence.  Virgin forests can be old growth (never been logged) or they can be without human influence for over 60 years.  Virgin forests are characterized by trees of various ages (must have old trees) and with the presence of fallen logs on the forest floor.  Virgin forests tend to have a more open space at the ground level and areas of regeneration in gap spaces.  Virgin forests are vastly different from second growth forests, which develop after a virgin forest undergoes a disturbance, such as clear cutting or intense fire. A secondary forest is typically composed of even age stands (all trees are the same age), which results from regrowth of seeds after the disturbance.  These forests typically have high tree densities with less understory development.  Continued succession (undisturbed time) however will lead to uneven aged stands which are diverse and relatively stable.  Forest stability often results from the accumulation of nutrients in tree biomass.  This forms a pool (perhaps as much as 50% of the total nutrients) which are unavailable for new growth.  Under natural conditions, trees die periodically, thus opening the canopy (sunlight) and providing nutrients for young trees.  However, when a large-scale disturbance occurs, such as fire, then nutrients are released all at once and are usually washed out of the system.  Timber removal is another large-scale disturbance that reduces nutrient availability because the nutrients are removed with the trees.

Within any forest, there is a great deal of stratification (vertical zonation) that occurs in the plants, animals and abiotic conditions.  Uneven age stands (virgin) of trees typically have three strata; the overstory or canopy (over 3m high), the understory which consists of a shrub layer (0.5-3m high) and an herbaceous or ground layer (under 0.5m).  Secondary growth forests are often missing or have a reduced shrub layer because the high density of young dominant trees that shade out understory plants.  The forest floor in both communities provides habitat for numerous invertebrates, birds (grouse, partridge, quail), and mammals (rodents, foxes, deer, bear, etc.).  Soil invertebrates tend to remain underground, in the leaf litter, or under fallen debris.  The canopy plays host to a wide variety of invertebrates (often different from other strata) and birds, and, to some extent, mammals (squirrels).  The species of plants within the forest also tend to change as you move from forest interior to the forest edge.  Forest edges (stream bank or grass land) tend to have higher plant density and diversity and different species than the interior forest because more light is able to reach the forest floor.  Higher diversity is often not achieved in highly disturbed sites because invasive species often dominate the edge habitat.  Along stream banks, periodic flooding adds an additional constraint that alters the community of plant species.  Stream bank communities are often dominated by fast growing species (willow and cottonwood) that can tolerate higher soil moisture “wet feet” and periodic floods.

Central New Jersey is located at a point of transition from an oak hickory climax forest to one where sugar maple and red maple (Acer saccharum) dominate.  Oak forests have historically covered much of the Eastern United States, but because they are mostly shade intolerant, they depend on disturbances (fire, clear cutting) to allow for regeneration.  Sugar maple and ash saplings are a shade tolerant and can relatively quickly become a dominant species in a forest if no disturbances have occurred.  Once they become established, they create a closed canopy, which will shade out less saplings of shade intolerant species such as the white oak (Quercus alba).   The majority of forests in Central New Jersey were cleared early in European colonization for lumber, fuel, and farming.  Many of the forests were permanently lost to urban development, but a few small fragments were allowed to regrow and were preserved as parks or refuges.  Many of these forests would be described as secondary forests, while a few have been left long enough to develop uneven aged stand.  The current management of forests in the Eastern United States has shifted from clear cutting (good for Oaks) to selective cutting (good for maples).

Our forest ecology lab will include one day of video in a Northern NJ forest and one day of data analysis.  During part one of the lab, we will collect data on plant communities, climate, and soil conditions in the upland and bottomland forest.

This research project is attempting to answer the question of whether the upland forest has different plant and animal communities than the bottomland forest area. Your introduction and discussion should focus on these ecological principles and how they relate to our findings.

  • In which ways are upland habitats different (moisture, temperature, light etc.) than bottomland habitats? How would that impact the species in these locations? Do our findings match the theoretical community?
  • How does dominance, frequency, density and importance value help us describe the community. These will be graphed as well.


Week I:  Vegetation Analysis

We will use a method of sampling known as the point-centered quarter method (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974) that would allow us to assess the ground, understory as well as the canopy vegetation.  We will only measure and identify canopy species.  At a sampling point, a hypothetical cross is formed which divides the surrounding area into four sections (see diagram).  In each section, plants in each category (ground, shrub, canopy) closest to the center point are measured.    First the distance to the plant is recorded, the plant is identified, and the circumference of the tree at breast height (~1 m) is measured.  We will then convert the circumference to diameter breast height (DBH).  You will be working in groups of three or four individuals and one person will record, two people will measure and the third will determine which plants are to sampled and what those plants are.  Each group will try to do as many of these “points” as possible but our goal is to measure 5 locations in both forest areas, the upland and the lowland.   Keep in mind that the first one or two goes slowly, but that things speed-up after that!


Literature Cited

Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974.  Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology.

Wiley. New York.


Smith, R. 1980.  Ecology and Field Biology.  Harper and Row Publishers.  Philadelphia, PA.


Forest community calculations:

You will analyze the interior and riparian forest communities separately and then we will compare them in the results and discussion of the paper.


  1. Calculate Alpha, Beta, and Gamma diversity (richness)
  2. Calculate Jaccard’s Index of Community Similarity
  3. Calculate forest community assessment calculations (record in tables 4 and 5)


Part 1

Alpha diversity = number of species in each site

Beta diversity = number of species that do not have site overlap

Gamma diversity = total number of species found in the sites


Part 2

Jaccard’s Index: 0 = no species in common, 2.0 = all species in common


J =

A = Alpha diversity site 1, B = Alpha diversity of site 2, and w = number of species in common


Part 3

Forest community assessment calculations


  1. Total (sum) the point to individual (tree) distances for all trees = (d)


  1. Divide (d) by the total number of individuals measured to give you the average distance ()


  1. Total density of all species = 1/()2


  1. Relative density = X100


  1. Density = X total density of all species


  1. Average dominance value = Use circumference data to calculate average area of each species


  1. Dominance = Density of a species X average dominance value for a species


  1. Relative dominance = X 100


  1. Frequency =


  1. Relative frequency = X 100


  1. Importance value = Relative density + Relative Dominance + Relative Frequency


Data Tables:

Table 1: Forest habitat observations

Observation Upland forest Bottomland forest
Temperature 53 F 52 F
Humidity 82% 82%
Percent canopy cover 80% 70%
Light level 7700 Lux 9110
Humus layer depth ½ inch none
Soil nitrogen Trace Trace
Soil phosphorus Low Low
Soil potassium High high
Soil pH 6 5


Table 2: Upland forest community of canopy layer

Site/quadrant Species common Scientific Distance (m) Circumference (m) Tree area
Site 1, quad. 1 White Pine Pinus strobus 0.73 0.32  
Site 1, quad. 2 Red Oak Quercus rubra 4.90 0.62  
Site 1, quad. 3 Red Oak Quercus rubra 2.05 0.33  
Site 1, quad. 4 White Oak Quercus alba 2.83 1.03  
Site 2, quad. 1 Mockernut Hickory Carya tomentosa 3.22 1.37  
Site 2, quad. 2 American Beech Fagus grandifola 2.25 0.21  
Site 2, quad. 3 Red Maple Acer rubrum 4.45 0.10  
Site 2, quad. 4 Sweet Birch Betula lenta 3.63 0.40  
Site 3, quad. 1 Red Maple Acer rubrum 1.88 0.31  
Site 3, quad. 2 White Oak Quercus alba 3.92 1.06  
Site 3, quad. 3 White Oak Quercus alba 2.68 0.43  
Site 3, quad. 4 White Oak Quercus alba 3.53 0.24  


Table 3: Bottomland forest community of canopy layer

Site/quadrant Species common Scientific Distance Circumference Tree area
Site 1, quad. 1 Sweet Birch Betula lenta 2.95 1.75  
Site 1, quad. 2 Red maple Acer rubrum 2.53 0.25  
Site 1, quad. 3 Red maple Acer rubrum 2.91 0.97  
Site 1, quad. 4 Red maple Acer rubrum 3.64 0.37  
Site 2, quad. 1 Sweet Birch Betula lenta 3.32 1.13  
Site 2, quad. 2 Black oak Quercus velutina 2.25 0.26  
Site 2, quad. 3 Black oak Quercus velutina 4.00 1.91  
Site 2, quad. 4 Black oak Quercus velutina 9.52 0.87  
Site 3, quad. 1 Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica 4.95 1.47  
Site 3, quad. 2 Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica 2.73 0.24  
Site 3, quad. 3 White Oak Quercus alba 4.05 1.43  
Site 3, quad. 4 White Oak Quercus alba 3.15 0.83  


Forest calculation are done for each tree species in a particular area (interior or edge)


Table 4: Summary of community composition measurements for upland forest


Species Density


Relative Density Dominance


Relative Dominance Frequency Relative Frequency Importance value
White Pine              
Red Oak              
White Oak              
Mockernut Hickory              
American Beech              
Red Maple              
Sweet Birch              










Table 5: Summary of community composition measurements for bottomland forest


Species Density


Relative Density Dominance


Relative Dominance Frequency Relative Frequency Importance value
Sweet Birch              
Black Oak              
Green Ash              
White Oak              
Red Maple              



Please produce a report of the stock SIVB using the topics in the attachment in order to make a recommendation on the stock: Buy, Sell or Hold. Present the work as if you are an analyst and I am a portfolio manager. Your goal is to get the idea into the portfolio based on your analysis. Note that this could include being short the stock in the portfolio. Not all concepts need to be used. The required texts are listed in the attachment.


In this discussion, we will examine how firms use budget and other information to evaluate the performance of individuals and of the firm. Students should be able to exhibit a familiarity with these concepts and how they are used.

Explain the concepts of responsibility accounting and performance evaluation in your own words. How can these be used by a firm to improve their performance? Describe a balanced scorecard and explain how it differs from a traditional evaluation approach.


In this discussion, we will examine how firms use budget and other information to evaluate the performance of individuals and of the firm. Students should be able to exhibit a familiarity with these concepts and how they are used.

Explain the concepts of responsibility accounting and performance evaluation in your own words. How can these be used by a firm to improve their performance? Describe a balanced scorecard and explain how it differs from a traditional evaluation approach.


APA Formatting

Citation is standard practice for scholars and students engaged in written academic conversations for several reasons. First, citation shows that you have conducted research and considered a variety of viewpoints on your topic. Through in-text citations and references, you can help readers locate the sources used within your paper and understand how you arrived at your conclusions. Citation also gives you credibility as a writer because it shows that you’ve supported your arguments with evidence. Finally, citation also allows writers to give credit to other scholars for their ideas, which helps you avoid plagiarism.

APA Formatting Rules

Paper Guidelines

  • Use 1-inch margins.
  • Double-space the entire document
  • Use Times New Roman, size 12, in black.
  • The title of the paper should be the first line of the page after the title page. The title should be centered, with major words capitalized, not boldface.
  • Indent all paragraphs. Make sure there are no extra line between paragraphs.

Title Page

  • The first page of your document should be the title page.
  • Insert running heads into the header of each page. The phrase “Running head:” (without quotation marks) should appear only on the title page with the first 50 characters of the paper’s title in all caps.
    • All subsequent pages should only have the 50 characters of the paper’s title in all caps, without the phrase “Running head.”
  • Your title page should contain the following information, on separate lines:
    • paper title (with all major words capitalized, not boldface),
    • student name,
    • course number and name,
    • name of the institution,
    • name of instructor,
    • date submitted.

Reference Pages

  • Use a page break to create a new page. The word References should be centered at the top, but not boldface.
  • List your references in alphabetical order.
  • Each reference should be double-spaced.
  • The first line of each reference should be aligned with the left margin. Each subsequent line of the reference should have a hanging indent.

Watch a video from Purdue OWL on formatting APA papers.

Creating A Running Head

A Running head is a heading printed at the top of each page of a book, chapter, article, or paper. APA formatting specifies that papers should include these for proper formatting.

APA Running Head Rules

Insert running heads in the header of each page. The phrase “Running head:” (without quotation marks) should appear only on the title page with the first 50 characters (this includes spaces, but should not break up a word) of the paper’s title in all caps. All subsequent pages should only have the 50 characters of the paper’s title in all caps.

For more assistance see our Running Head documentation:

APA Paper Templates

These samples, rules, and templates include general guidelines for writing. Always ask your instructor if you have questions.

APA Paper Templates

Please note, this template has not translated appropriately in some Microsoft products. Please be sure the paper you submit adheres to APA formatting standards.


Believe in just world and prosocial behaviors, the role of religiosity and spirituality

Hello, I need to improve my psychology research proposal about belief in just word and prosocial behavior, I am sending the paper I wrote. I need to publish this paper, but my hypothesis is weak and I need to do a study where I can collect data online (corona related reasons). My idea is to include ” trust” in the study. I only have Study1 now, I might need to include Study 2.

Social Responsibility Concepts

In this Post Project, you will have an opportunity to demonstrate your mastery of social responsibility concepts by preparing a corporate social responsibility program that will be included in your corporation’s annual report.


A 1,000-word social responsibility program proposal
Activity Details

Perform the following steps:

Step 1: Read the scenario.

Northeastern Steel is a steel mill in Pittsburgh, Penn., that manufactures steel tubes used in industrial operations. The company has been in business since the 1930s. Over the past decade, Northeastern Steel has seen a decrease in its market share for steel tubes due to competition from other mills that have incorporated environmentally sustainable operations. To address the competition and the concerns of environmental and neighborhood groups that are upset over the amount of fumes released into the air, wastewater being released into an adjacent river and traffic into and out of the mill, you have been asked to include an appendix in the annual report regarding Northeastern Steel’s social responsibility initiatives to alleviate the advocacy group’s concerns, establish Northeastern Steel as a socially responsible entity, as well as provide financially sound reasons the company is undertaking these initiatives.

Step 2: Write a proposal.

Write a 1,000-word business proposal that will be read and considered by Northeastern Steel’s shareholders. Explain the reasoning and specifics of Northeastern Steel’s sustainability initiative, utilizing your learning of corporate social responsibility, environmental sustainability, and the financial and competitive benefits of engaging in this program of corporate social responsibility.

Outline the corporation’s social responsibility initiative: the reasons for undertaking these initiatives, the specific activities the corporation will undertake to become an environmentally sustainable corporation, and the benefits that undertaking this program will provide to shareholders, the corporation and the community.

Use these writing guidelines:

Include a cover page and references in addition to your required page count.
Use correct APA format.
Double-space text.
Use size 12 Times New Roman.
Use section headings to organize.
Indent paragraphs.
Include in-text citations as appropriate.
Use correct spelling, grammar, sentence structure and verb tense.


1) ‘ “I’m dying, Beauty,’ he said in a cracked whisper of his former purr. “Since you left me, I have been sick. I could not go hunting, I found I had not the stomach to kill the gentle beasts, I could not eat. I am sick and I must die; but I shall die happy because you have come to say goodbye to me” ’: what is your opinion of the Beast’s persona? How does he win Beauty over? What does his reaction reveal about gender stereotypes? What does the last line of the story remind you of?

Angela Carter’s The Bloody Chamber (1979)

Crisis management Plan

Instructions for the Crisis Management Plan (150 points):

1. You will be developing an original Crisis Management plan for one HRT organization or business. A hotel, restaurant, cruise ship, event, swimming pool, youth program, sport program, campus recreation program, recreation therapy program, etc.

2. A crisis can be defined as an unexpected, disruptive event that can cause harm and injury. Some examples of a crisis include a natural disaster (earthquake, fire, tornado, hurricane), foodborne illness, epidemic, bomb threat, infrastructure failure, workplace violence or a terrorist attack.

3. The plan you will be writing is for sudden, significant and negative events that impact numerous people. It goes further than an Emergency Action Plan (to deal with an injury, accident or medical emergency), or a Risk Management Plan (to prevent accidents/injuries, reduce liability and improve safety). A Crisis Management Plan addresses widespread crises that threaten the safety and security of many people.

4. This is not a generic assignment; it should be written specifically for the HRT organization or business you select. You can devise overall steps to follow during any crisis, or steps to follow in different types of crises.

5. A total of two references are required, all references should be directly related to your selected HRT setting and meet the following reference requirements:

a. One current article from a peer-reviewed journal, trade publication or conference proceeding (the only acceptable .com websites are articles from a trade publication, designed to improve practices for professionals in a trade or industry like hotels or restaurants), published between 2004-2020. The article should relate directly crisis management planning in your selected HRT setting.

b. One current Crisis Management Plan in your selected HRT field, published between 2004-2020.

c. Do NOT use any other types of references. Unacceptable references include the class textbook, web pages, videos, Wikipedia, dictionaries, encyclopedias, book reviews, abstracts, press releases, magazine or newspaper articles.

d. To look for references, search using Google or another search engine, using key terms like: crisis management plan, hotel (or restaurant, event, community center, parks and recreation, senior center, youth center, campus recreation program, recreation therapy program, tourism business, etc.).

6. The goal is to get ideas from references about what should be included in the plan, and to write your own original, basic plan describing the steps your staff should take to manage a crisis. The work should be original, written by you for this class (with no direct quotes, no copying and pasting the work of others). Interpret ideas, lists, and text from your references in your own words.

7. The plan should include concise, easy to follow written descriptions, lists, tables or charts. Your work must be in Word or PDF format for submission to Turnitin.

8. Some of the main parts of a Crisis Management Plan:

a. Crisis procedures and responses.

b. Roles of managers and employees.

c. Chain of command (or organizational chart for the crisis response team).

d. Communication – alerts, activation, notifications and ongoing communication.

e. Resources – equipment, facilities, other agencies, technology, medical services, water, food, shelter.

f. Managing the media.

g. What to do after the crisis is over – recovery, documentation, revision of the plan, debriefing, counseling.