New And Outstanding Narrative Essay Topics 2019

New And Outstanding Narrative Essay Topics 2019

Finding a good topic is not easy. That’s why we have researched the most common categories and come up with a list of narrative essay topic examples to inspire you. This will make it easier to find a theme you are looking for.

  1. If I won a billion dollars in the lottery
  2. The one thing I would change in my life
  3. My first job
  4. If only I could turn back time
  5. The weirdest thing I’ve ever seen in my life
  6. The most disastrous moment I’ve ever experienced
  7. My first encounter with fear
  8. 5 day-to-day issues that bother me
  9. The best achievement I’ve ever accomplished
  10. The most annoying thing about me
  11. Do you have hobbies that have been inherited from your family?
  12. How do you differ from your parents?
  13. How permissive are your teachers?
  14. How was your first encounter with the police?
  15. How good/bad are you at time management?
  16. How much time do you spend alone?
  17. What valuable lessons have you learned from adversity?
  18. Do you feel pressured to obtain a perfect body?

I have chosen the topic for my narrative essay. What’s next?

After you have found the best essay topic for your writing, study the instructions from your institution carefully. Be aware of the paper’s length and start writing the narrative essay outline. Also, check out the following writing tips that will make the writing process easier.

Tips on narrative essay writing:

Narrative essay topic ideas

1. Experience

The objective of the narrative essay is to teach you how to write about your experiences in a literary manner. To write a good essay, you have to brainstorm all thoughts concerning your life experiences with both negative and positive examples. Try to describe your experiences in as much detail as possible to attract the reader’s attention.

View All Essay Examples on Life Experience

Why is it important to come up with good narrative essay writing topics?

Why is it important to come up with good narrative essay writing topics?

When a lecturer assigns a narrative essay, some college students think they have to air out their personal stories, but that’s often not the case. You can create an interesting paper by making up a story, describing a memorable event, or writing about your role model. To create a masterpiece, take your time to come up with the right topic. There are numerous essay ideas you can find online, but none match our selection below.
Before you come up with your own topic idea, check our list of the best narrative essay prompts that will inspire you in ways you’ve never imagined. Once you pick your topic, perform thorough research and ensure your content is 100% original. Don’t copy an example directly from the internet. Instead, cite your sources to demonstrate your competence as a student. Focus on the topic and take your reader through your best memories. If you allow your words to flow naturally, you will create a fascinating story. It is your responsibility to ensure that your narrative essay makes a great impression on the reader.

Why is it important to come up with good narrative essay writing topics?

When students write a narrative essay, they typically choose between two options:

  1. Use the topic their instructor proposed, or
  2. Come up with their own topic

A strong topic choice determines the success of the whole essay. In the event you cannot do it yourself, you can find college essay help by clicking that link.

Criminal Justice And Public Health Policy Reforms

The final paper will propose a set of criminal justice and public health policy reforms to reduce the impact of drug-related crime and its health and social consequences.  Your proposed policy reforms should include a theoretical framework for why you believe the reforms would be effective, a historical perspective to argue why current policies are lacking or your proposed policy has merit, and where appropriate, data and prior research to back up your arguments.

Proposed policies or interventions might include changes in sentencing laws, increased access to treatment or prevention, a more or less punitive approach to drug use and drug sale, decriminalization, changes in budget priorities, or other new legislation, social programs, or policies.  Students will be graded on their ability to critically analyze a problem and its causes, and provide a defensible argument in favor of the proposed policy reforms.

The final paper should be 10-15 pages in length (excluding title page, abstract, and reference page). Students are required to utilize at least five scholarly peer-reviewed journals, two social science textbooks, and two websites as their supporting references. Finally, students will then adapt their final paper to a 10-15 Slide PowerPoint presentation that will demonstrate theoretical framework, policy, educational goals, and recommendations.  Students will reveal how they think the PowerPoint presentation could be used to educate various agencies such as the police department, university, community programs, and other outreach programs currently affected by drugs, addiction, and crime.



Its few hours remaining to the deadline of your illustration essay and you still don’t’ have a clue on how to write an illustrative easy? Don’t worry, below are the outline, tips, and checklist that will not only help you to write your essay but also act a reference for your future work.


Most academic essays will require you to write an illustration essay through reasoning and the use of Illustrations. In simple terms, an illustrative essay requires you to write by illustrations or examples rather than to tell. It often requires the use of illustration to support your statements. For example, after studying a novel, your instructor may want you to write an essay about your opinion of the key character. You would then come up with a statement about the character—for instance; Romeo in “Romeo and Juliet”– is intelligent but impulsive. You would then base your essay on evidence to support your belief in the statement. This is a simple formula to help you organize your thoughts in an illustration essay.

An illustrative essay is thus nothing more than giving facts to back up your thesis statement. However, to make it more colorful and interesting to read you will need to follow the following format.


A typical format is required in order to organize your illustration essay. The structure of an illustration essay is simple to follow and help you to figure out the appropriate way of organizing your thoughts. The required outline for an illustrative essay is as follows:-


The introduction should clearly define the general statement that you want to illustrate. You have to identify a definite idea of your statement for you to be able to support it through the use of examples and illustrations. Think about keywords and phrases that will support your statement. This will help you to come up with a thesis statement. The thesis statement of an illustration essay should be at the end of the introduction.

Basically, the introduction serves the purpose of briefly introducing the main ideas about your thesis. It should also be interesting to engage the attention of the reader.


The body paragraphs of an illustrative essay contain the main reasons to support your thesis statement. It should have three to four sentences with clear, precise and supportive examples or illustrations. The examples used should be applicable and supportive to your writing. These examples are simply used to represent your point of view of the statement in question. Each body paragraph should end with a closing sentence that reinforces how the examples support your main reasons in the article.


The conclusion of an illustrative essay should restate the thesis statement and illustrate the importance of the thesis. The conclusion draws from the main points supporting the thesis. When writing the conclusion, bear in mind that the principal context of an illustration essay is its examples. Thus you should strive to build a clear picture of the statement under discussion with the use of informative and well-supported concluding sentences.

While the format of an illustration essay may seem essay to follow, it also requires some careful thoughts to piece the necessary information together.

Here are essential tips to write an illustration essay.

  • An Illustration essay should show by explaining a point using evidence rather than tell.
  • When selecting examples/illustrations make sure to brainstorm whether it is appropriate for the subject.
  • Organize your reasons in order of importance either from the most important to the least important or vice versa.
  • Use sentences with examples/illustrations to support your reasons.

Below is a checklist to use when writing your illustration essay.

  • Does your introduction clearly state the thesis statement by providing the most important points to be addressed in the essay?
  • Have you used relevant examples/illustrations to elaborate and give supporting evidence for your thesis statement in your article’s body paragraph?
  • Does your conclusion restates the thesis statement and provide a summary of the main examples/illustration that back up your thesis statement?
  • After you’ve finished writing your illustration essay, did you make sure to double check whether you used the correct spelling and grammar?

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Do These Things For Writing High Quality Academic Paper

Writing down papers throughout your academic career comes with advantage according to professional writing services. Be it a research paper, essay, different types of assignments or anything. You have to go through it no matter how much you dislike it. But the point is that along with this comes the ease to ace your paper writing skills. When it comes to doctorate level, your skills should be polished enough to help you write down the most important academic writing of your life without the help of any professional paper writerThis totally depends on your own skills and practice you have had over the years. For those who need to up their game in paper writing should read below to write down the best papers.

Understand Your Task

When a student is given the task to write down their assignment, the first thing that should be done is to understand what is actually being asked in the question. You should look upon your instructor or a best paper writing service to help you out. This is because if you are not able to understand the question, your research won’t be up to the mark.

Think and Decide

Your personal opinions and thoughts are what matter the most. Since they are unique and can compel the readers to form new thoughts from it. It can very productive hence your ideas should be added into it. Also you can look for a paper writing service to validate your points from them.


In most cases, research may not be necessary and your ideas can be enough to support your argument. But a point backed up by solid evidences are very important and can be considered helpful to make your writing very strong. Consult a best professional writing services to get more information from them.

Review and Organize

After your research, you might have made notes of your research and self though ideas. They need to be put in form of an outline. This can help you out with writing very efficiently. You can make your own outline and get it reviewed by a paper writing serviceGetting helped by an experienced guideline can help you achieve more self confidence. This also will make you be able to put forth your work efficiently.

Rough Drafts

Some points can look very interesting to you when in raw form but when it is jotted down in proper writing, it might not make sense. So in order to save time, since you won’t be able to recreate it if you find anomaly, you can prepare a rough draft. It will not only be helpful for analyzing but also save time as the same draft can be edited afterward. Check for any paper writing services for more precision.

Write it Down

For writing, you must have very good writing skills that help you to depict your ideas very beautifully. Ask for the best paper writing service to help you add in words to your vocabulary that look good to be part of any type of paper.

Edit and Revise

After writing down your paper or any assignment, make sure that you have revised it. People do make mistakes and in most of cases, many prominent mistakes can be overlooked while the whole process of writing. Make a paper writing service that will revise your paper for you so the writing becomes errorless.

There are many services in the market that help you out in all of the about mentioned points. As for beginners, these tips can be very helpful. You can look for paper writing services like Academic Writing Pro for any kind of professional help.

CRM Case Study

CRM Case Study

Read the attached case study (PDF document) and respond to the questions below. 

It will be necessary for you to research CRM strategies and/or implementation in Russia to formulate your responses. 

HINT: see the articles listed under References in the attached document.

Cite References in APA style


Assume you are James Williams developing a presentation on CRM in Russia for the Board of Directors of AMIR limited:

  1. Identify strategies for the CRM project implementation.
  2. Identify reasons contributing to the failure of the CRM implementation at Mashkin.
  3. Discuss the current state of CRM practice in emerging markets using the example in Russia.
  4. What additional challenges might companies in Russia face in implementing CRM projects?

Article below:

CusrouER REr-ATroNSHrp MANAGEMENTStnetBcv(A TnecHrNG Cesu Sruov)Tamilla Curtis.Nova Southeastcrn University317 Aleatha Drive, Davtona Beach, FL 32114Donald BarercNova Southcastcrn Univcrsifi,1900 Pelican Landing Blvd, #1t)23, Clear-water, FL 33762Tom GriffinN c.rva Southeastern University2900 NE 30th St. Unit 8G, Fort Lauderdale, FL 3330(rDespite the benefit afered lry ilte integration of cuttomer relationsltip management (CkM) strategywith aduanced lechno/0g,, manlt companiu ii//fail to see competitiae aduautage results protnbed b1CRM.’I’his case stadl proaides a platformfor student anafisis and discassion in lhis area.This case ttud1 is presented in two parts. Tlte frst part descibu the unvccessfal inplemenlation ofan integrated CRM ysteru witbin a ntidsiqefnancialfrm based in the (J.l; the second partprouidesan oueruiew 0f CkNI deueloptrent in kusia af huo telecomruunication companies. Suge$ed tlueilions.for discassion are presenled. Appendix A prauides an oueruiea of CkM that can be eruplayd al theoption rf an instractor tct transition between a spectfic curicu/urt and the case. Teaching ncttes(inckding exanple respzltrr,i for each discussion question) are aaailable b), contacting thecome$onding author.Telephone: 386 226 7173e-mail: cuttist(@erau.edu53

afnternational Business: Research, Teaching and Ptactice2008 (2) 1MesnrcN GRoupN{ashkin Group Inc. (N{ashkin), a wholly owned subsidiary of Amir Inc., a Britishfinancial conglomerate, is a medium-size, asset-managemerit group based in theUS. Mashkin consists of three primary dir.isions: a mutual fund company with$10 billion in assets; a separate, but closelr,- affiiiated asset management companvrvith $15 billion in assets; and a financial services company. Since the early 1990s,these three enterprises have shared the same client database and other softwareprograms. The first program utilized, an inexpensive, off-the-shelf system withlimited capabilities, was used by the sales department of both the mutual fundcompany and the asset maflagement company primarily to store names,telephone numbers, and notes of salespeople. A second progtam was used by theIT department to update the database as new clients arrived and record daily salesdata. A third program was installed at all internal and external salespersons’workstations and laptops to provide current data to the sales force. In addition,the Client Service Call Center used a sepa(ate designed-in-house program to trackincoming call activity.The technology systems utilized by employees in N{ashkin were designed tosupport general sales activities. None of the software was designed specifically forthe needs of their financial divisions (either the murual fund or the assetmanagement side) and lacked the anaiytic functionality as weil as the collaborativefunctionaLitv to interface with other systems rvithin Mashkrn. This limitedfunctionaliry of technologv forced emplovees to spend an inordinate amount oftime manuall1, jumping bctween applicauons and creating new reports to importand export data between applications that could not be cr-rrrentil, integrated.Srgnificant effort was also expended in e-mail and other communicationsbetween users throughout the firm to collect information that rvas not recordedin the system.STorking around the limitations of the technologies had been possible whenthe sales volume and number of clients was small, but with the expansion of thecompany the situation had become unacceptable. Management felt that it wastime to implement a comprehensive CRM strategy with integrated technologyspecific to the needs of their financial divisions (both the mutual fund and theasset management sides). The three companies undet the umbrella of Mashkinshared the same objectives for their new CRM approach:1.To pror.,ide superior service to customers inaddition to the benefit ofthe core ptoduct;2. To identify, focus on and retain key customers;3. To develop customer’s profiles; and4. To improve managerial decisions and workflow.54

Cunis, Barerc & GdffinCRM Case SrudyThe desired (and expected) outcome of the new strategic approach, whichincluded the internar ‘rorguniru,ion or the use oi ,.rorr..s, was increasedproductiviq’ through ar,””r “..”* to comprehensive client recofcrs; fasterresponse ro customer needs; better reporting ana ^ capabilities; reducingdupti c a ti o n o f e fro rts ; ^” d il ;;;, “.;;;;;;,;# lr.i,io,u r,. r.:THB CRM pnoyecrIn order to deal with the- complex issues of identification anclimplemcntation of ,r,. ,pprofrirr.^cnu pr'”grr-,’^ iiM trrkforce was formedconsisting or m1119eriri i.rr.i “-ptoy..r. wi.,it. ir;g;^;;_, have rhe resourcesrequired to buy comprehenrir,” ..,jtom svstems, ,r.r4r.. firms are often forcecl touse low cost, off-the–shelf p.”au.,r, -odify produ.i, a*”r”pecr for other firms,or build a sysrem in-house; ,”d l; Mu”tLir,r;;;rir” budgetary constraintsprohibited the outrigh, p.rr.hrr” o i^a fury-“gr;;;;:;;;.- sysrem. ,{n outsidecRN[ consurtant wai hired to,’i.r rrr. pr”‘gr;’rrii’rr.rp se]ect an off_the_shelf integrated sysrem for use trlro,rgho.l; ,r- ?Im. working with theconsultant’s input, the task force determh.a tn. :”;d;., the impremenradonprocess inciuding sofrware ,.qoir.-.rtr, r,endor ,Ii..tio.r, budget, projecttimeframe,,i-rn.r involved ;;;-;r.. training. Aft.r Lorrth, oi.._,mpuringprograms thar could be adaptecr to the unique leeds or-,r_,. companies withinMashkin, one was seiected ,i-,^, *^ successfu,y^- ,r. Ly a sim,ar, but rarger,firm’ Mashkin finany .”-*iii.a’io , .rror.n CRM ,yri._ and the softwarelicenses were purch^r.a. ,r. ii dJprrr*.r, ensured that arnerworks for thenew CRM prog.ram were in pt”… fi. new system was popuiated with currenrdata that was tia.,sfer..a rroirli-,-” “ra ar,^u^J;. ;; ;;;J’,” minimize risk, thelr1],.J:”-s were left in pir.”*,i “rr, purnu.t with th. ,rewty instat.led cRMDespite careful planning Mashkin faccd major challenses c’rrino rh^ ^-^:^^-implemen tation. rhe co s t o i the “.* cry,1,: ;; #ffiff ;i::i:.Hr.Tli.jbc subsrantialJl’ grcater rhan was budgetcd. conrrovcrsiar issoverruns began surfacing ar eve{, b;;r”J meeting. iues concerning costIn the process o_f dataffansfer tens-of thousands of client fires with contactnotes and crient prof,es were ,ru.,rr.r..d ura ^gu;;.i, ,iun.r, regard to theirchr, This rack ,f .hr,,n.,r.rg1.-..rn, users had r’scr’, through years ofnores ro iocare recenr enrries nnd ,iou. rhem near ,n” ;;;, rhe fire in order rorender them useabr5. .The nt., -o*’nrr..,.a *.r;’il”r”. -Jr to.,g_,r_e crients,many of whom had. done b.rsin”ss *r,i ,f.. firm for 10 orclients had lengthv fires-that *;;;;j” .,.-b.r.o-. ,”i irin.I:i: ffi;:i:r;result of rhe data rransfer. a-“rg;hl’ri.r., tho,se doing heavy sares vorume ancrthose atrempting to grean useabr: ;;;r-;r, of the ,..rirul.i’ fires were afFecreclmost’ user efficienciis in this ,.rr-,rrr”].ptimal system declined further.iir;1,-*ir55

7Intemational Business: Research, Teaching and Practice2008 (2) 1Another shortcoming was user training. The firm provided on-line trainingof sales personnel in the new CRM system, but the system $/as based on on-demand user training and there was no structure in place that ensured employeescompleted the training instead of merely employing it as a “Help” system. Asemployees left and new ones replaced them training deteriorated to an associatespending a few miriutes demonstrating the system to a new employee, who wasultimately left to figure it out on their own. While an integrated CRM applicationspecific to the financial industry was implemented, financial advisots andsalespeople were not utilizing it. The end users prefetted to rely on oldtechnologies and iuggled different applications instead of using the newlyinstalled, comprehensive CRM system. Ultimately, the outcome of the CRMimplementation at Mashkin was completely the oppo$te of what managementenvisioned with end results of employee confusion, whsted money and lost time.AMIR LrurtBoAMIR, a British financial conglomerate with a large telecommunicationdivision, was interested in further expanding its business operations and wasinvestigating opportunities in the former Soviet Union for its financial servicesdivision. AMIR’s Board of Directors sought information on the current state ofCRM practices in Russia with particular intetest in any specific challenges thatmight be faced in implementing CRM strategies in Russian ftms.James Williams, a senior project advisor with AMIR’s intetnational divisionwas tasked with developing a presentation on CRM in Russia for the Board ofDirectors. Prior to joining AMIR, Williams had been program manager ^tMashkin and a member of the task force that had steered the unsuccessfi.rl CRMproject.l7illiams was given the following report ptepated by a manager at AMIR’stelecommunications division who had been given a similar tesearch task focusingon the communications market., ,’ it’,, i 1.,, i-,r,REPORTTOMANAGEMENT :CRM IN THE TELECOMMUNICAT’OilS ‘IVDUSTRY’IV RUSS’ASrnce fhe collapse of the Sovief Union in 1991, market reform inRussra has resulted in dramatic changes in the business crmafe. Economicreform resulted in a massive transfer of government ownership to theprivate secfor (Hisrich, 1996). The economic restructuring reform promotedeconomic growth ln Russra by making a transition from central governmentcontrol to a market-based economy with large opportunities for foreigncapital and investment,56

Curtis, Barrere & GriffinCRM Case StudyThere is an indication that foreign and Russran parTners have differentviews of underlying busrness principles. Due to the emphasts of Russianmanagement on collectivistic approaches fo buslness and reliance oncapital and functional aspecfs over human assefs (Katsioloudes andlsichenko, 2007), a large number of foreign investment companies sfartedjoint ventures with Russian companies. Ihe Russian market’s orientationhad previously focused on processrng inventory with emphasis placed onsupply rather than on consumer demand. As a result, Russlan companieslargely ignored the consumer (Hisrich, 1996). ln the changing economicconditions, many firms ln Russia were forced to create new methods ofdolng busrness.CRM, a relatively new concepf ln Russra, started to gain recognition inearly 2000. The finance and telecommunication industries are the largestsecfors currently employing CRM strafegies. Wagner indicated,”Contemporary Russian marketing practices cover only a narrow spectrumof the diversity of marketing practices observed in other nations, andoverall intensity of marketing activities ls low in comparison withinternational benchmarks” (2005:1 99).Io address the needs of the accelerating Russian’CRM market, theCRM Association was founded in July 2004 to:’:bonduct CRM forums,conferences, and discussions; fo assisf organizations with training; todistribute publications in order to increase auvareness about CRM buslnesspractices; and to conduct research. The overall goal of the CRMAssociafion is to build CRM awareness and share the best technologiesand practices, Ihe first CRM congress was held in Moscow in December2004, where the besf Russian CRM projects were presented and new CRMsystems and approaches were dlscussed. More than 350 top managersfrom Russia n and international companies participated in the congress.lndustries included financial serulces, pharmaceutical, marketing,telecommunication, and others. ln March 2005, Microsoft Corporation,together with DataArt (a provider of high-end software outsourcing serulceswith headquafters in New York), conducted a CRM sysfems seminar in St.Petersburg, Russia fo address the development of new CRM so/ufions.The leading global busrness technology event, the lnterop MoscowExhibition, supported by the American Chamber of Commerce in Russia,was held in April 2008, and provided opportunities for internationalcompanies to examine fhe Russian market and to display the latesttechnologies available in the CRM area. According fo speciallsfs, Russlacurrently represenfs large investment opportunitiesi’for foreign CRMtechnology and consulting companies, ” ”!:57

fntemational Business: Reseatch, Teaching and Practice2008 (2) 1EXAMPLES OF CRM PROJECISAlthough academic research on CRM developmenf ln Russla is minimal,the implementation of CRM practices are evident in the example of twotelecommunication providers: Svyazinvest (a national provider); andMegaFon-MoscoLv (a regional provider).Svyazinvest is a telecommunication investment joint stock companythat was formed by consolidating shares owned by the federal governmentin regional telecom operations during the priuatization of thetelecommunications secfor. lt is considered one’ of the largesttelecommunication holding companies in the wotd (Svyazinvest, 2008).Svyazinvest incorporates seven large mega-regional telecommunicationsoperations, and national domestic long-distance and internationaloperations. The holding company’s subsidtaries operate public telephonenetworks with capacity exceeding 32.4 million telephone lines. ln 2005,Svyazinvest, together with IBM and Amdocs (fhe provider of billing andCRM products and seryices for integrated customer management), beganthe largest CRM billing modernization projectin Russia (GlobalTechnologyUnit, 2005). This project was desrgned to replace more than 180 ofSvyazinvest’s billing sysfems across seven regions with Amdocs products,and included the implementation of new voice and data services for ifssubscribers. The CRM project was conducted in several phases, includingthe introduction of a single billing system across Svyazinvest operations.The new CRM sfrafegles and technologies eventually will provideSvyazinvest with the ability to connect different operations located indifferent geographic regions under one umbrella. This will give employeesthe ability to get a single comprehensive view of consumers. Overall, theimplementation of new technologies is expected to give the company acompetitive advantage by developing the efficient, ald’,effective networkinfrastructure in order to provide a high-quality telecoiimunication servrcefo lfs subscrlbers.i’lMegaFon-Moscow, a division of the MegaFon Grouptelecommunication company, and one of the first Russian mobile operatorsin the Global Sysfem for Mobile communications (GSM,), was formed at theend of 2001 due to reorganization of severaltelecommunication companies(MegaFon-Moscow, 2008). MegaFon-Moscow ls one of the three telecomproviders responsib/e for the wrreless network coverage of the Moscowregion. The cell phone market has experienced tremendous growth inrecent years in Russra. Currently MegaFon-Moscor,v has more than fivemillion subscribers. ln March 2005, company management made adecision to implement the Amdocs CRM technology (MegaFon-Moscow,2005). The new Amdocs automation resulted in many advantages, such as58i ,,.,,J

Cuttis, Bartete & GriIlEfiCR-tuI Case Studytime saving for consumers calling the call center, an increase in thenumber of customer’s cal/s taken, and a better call routing structure. NewCRM technologies allowed MegaFon-Moscow to link call centers with itssfores, and to provide better access to customer information data. AmdocsCRM was able to consolidate MegaFon-Moscow data into a single unifiedplatform, which is fully integrated with existing billing systems. Customerseruice employees receive fasf access to customer data, giving them theability to respond quickly to customer’s reguesfs and provide a high level ofcustomer seruice.l7illiams finished teading the report and reflected on the manager’s analysisof CRM practices in Russia and his own experiences at Mashkin.QursrIoNs Fon DrscussroN:Assume you are James $7illiams developing a presentation on CRM in Russia forthe Board of Directors of AMIR limited:1,. Identify strategies for the CRM project implementation.2. Identify reasons contributing to thd’:’failure of the CRMimplementation at Mashkrn.Discuss the current state of CRM practice in emerging marketsusing the example of Russia.What additional challenges might companies in Russia face inimplementing CRM projects?RBrpnpNcssHisrich, R. D. (1996) The Russian distribution system: Problems for entrepreneurs andnew venture efltrance’, Manageruent Rttearch News, 19(8) : 1 – 1 8.Global Technology Unit (2005) IBM and Amdocs undertake Russia’s largest wirelinebilling ptoject’, [www document] ltl/gru/success/amdocs.html (accessed 15 March 2008).I(atsioloudes, M. L & Isichenko, D. (2007) ‘International joint ventures in Russia: A recipefor success,’ Man age m e n t Re s e arch l{ e tt s, 30 (2) : | 3 3 – I 52.NlegaFon-Moscow (2008), [www documcnt] generalf (accgss3d 20 Apri12008).MegaFon-Moscow (2005) ‘MegaFon-Moscow to implement Amdocs CRM solution’,[wwv, document] http://u’ f oewsf crm/EEplpFykVkkEN{wltbc.php(accessed 25 February 2008).:-.;, .).4.59

Intemational Business: Research, Teaching and Practice2008 (2) 1Peppers, D. & Rogers, M. (2004) “Roots of Customer Relationship Management”, inManaging Customer Relationships: A Sttategic Framework, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.:Hoboken, pp.5-8.Srryazinvest (2008), fwww document)http:/ / (accessed 25 April,2008).\X/agner, R. (2005) ‘Contemporary marketing practices in Russia’, European Joantal ofMarketing 39(1. /2): 1.99-21.5

Heritage Health Resources

Heritage Health Resources

Journal of Critical Incidents


Ann Igbo’s dream was turning into a nightmare: Heritage Health Resources was strapped for cash, and things would get worse if she did not act. Her company had plenty of work, but its costs were increasing and it relied on payments from insurance companies for nearly all its income–payments based on claims that were labor-intensive to prepare and frequently delayed or lost altogether. Ann was in charge of her own destiny, and that was part of the problem. She made all the decisions for her company, paid the bills, and made payroll. Should she hire another employee, consider outsourcing, or automate the insurance claims process which could further burden her already-stretched employees? She was on the verge of starting a major project without being fully aware of its magnitude or implications. Automating her claims process with a new software package could be a wise investment or sheer folly. Ann did not have a strategic plan; she used trial and error, like most new entrepreneurs. Was there a better way?


Ann Igbo always dreamed of being a social entrepreneur, but it took a while to get there. The second oldest of nine children, she grew up in poverty. She viewed education as her ticket out. She first earned a bachelor’s degree in mental health, and later obtained a master’s degree in social work. While managing a program to assist people who were homeless and mentally ill, she started a part-time business selling books and African art and jewelry. Although profitable for 10 years, she was unable to find partners willing to put in the physical and emotional capital needed to expand. Then her entrepreneurial spirit and passion for helping others came together in a brilliant idea for a business where she could finally use her education in social work to promote well-being. She started Heritage Health Resources, a private practice providing much-needed mental health services to the community, which was Ann’s ultimate goal.

As a licensed therapist, Ann offered therapy to individuals, couples, and families. She also consulted and conducted workshops and training sessions throughout the metropolitan area’s mental health community. Ann’s business took off and grew steadily. After about two years, she hired a full-time office manager, part-time office support staff, and several part-time therapists. Heritage even added other services to its offerings, such as group therapy and off-site counseling. A prominent local organization provided links into the community for mental health services, which generated a steady stream of referrals to Heritage. Ann was thrilled–the front end of her business was thriving!

Most Heritage clients used medical insurance to pay for their sessions. There were some self-pay clients, but 90 percent of the clientele relied on insurance to cover their therapy costs. Heritage submitted insurance claims to each client’s provider after each visit. The process to complete each HCFA 1500 (Health Care Financing Administration) claim form was a manual one and quite cumbersome. Kim, the office manager, manually prepared claims for all clients, and then mailed them to their respective insurance providers. It could take up to an hour to complete claim forms for just five clients. This became a major burden to Heritage. There had to be a more efficient way for these claims to be prepared. Automation seemed like a way to improve cash flow, but Ann needed more information on the costs and benefits of making the investment.

The Case for Automation

Once the claims were submitted to the various insurance providers, it could take several weeks–even months–to receive payment for services rendered. Some companies were painfully slow to pay. Ann was obligated to accept whatever reduced rate each insurance company was willing to pay based on her agreement with them. Ann depended heavily on insurance payments arriving in a timely manner. So far, such payments had covered Heritage’s expenses for overhead ($1,000/month), salaries ($40/hour for therapists and $7-15/hour for staff), and taxes (15%). However, sometimes insurance providers made errors and did not pay all of the submitted claims, or claims were lost in the mail. Once such claims were resubmitted, the waiting process would start over. Kim sometimes spent hours on the phone with insurers trying to resolve issues. Receiving timely, steady payments was essential to the success and longevity of Ann’s business. As a small company, it was extremely important for claims to be processed quickly to ensure a sustained, positive cash flow for continued operations (see Table 1).

Cash flow deteriorated when payments from insurers were delayed. Ann suspected that the cumbersome claims preparation and submissions process was the culprit after she discovered that only half of the amount billed was received within five weeks. Ann met with Kim to ascertain whether there was a way to expedite claims submissions. She knew that Kim was performing many duties in her role as office manager, as was often the case in small businesses. They needed to strategize and figure out what could be done to ensure quick, accurate claims preparation and submission in order to minimize insurance company turnaround time.

Ann wanted to identify bottlenecks and delays, so she asked Kim to create a process map (see Figure 1) to illuminate the receivables process from therapy sessions to payments received. Ann and Kim concluded that automation might help. They examined a variety of software packages that could significantly reduce the time required to process insurance claims. Furthermore, a good software package might simplify many office tasks, allowing Heritage to integrate the entire client process.

After looking at many options, Ann and Kim selected Therapist Helper because it also served as a client database that could be used for scheduling and capturing the therapist’s notes. Therapist Helper promised not only to automate the claims preparation process, but could also electronically submit claims to some insurance companies. It seemed ideal. With the new program, Kim could prepare and submit claims in a fraction of the time she had been using. Unfortunately, the software was expensive; it cost $3,000, which was a lot of money for Ann’s fledgling company. Ann was not certain the software would resolve the company’s cash flow issues, and wondered if the benefits would exceed the risks. She also knew she needed to figure out some reasonable payback period to aid the decision process.

Ann had several serious concerns. She lacked technical knowledge and knew nothing about software licensing and maintenance fees, training time and costs, and compatibility of Therapist Helper with her existing computer hardware and operating system. What if the software did not solve the problem? Would the learning curve be too much for her staff? Would the project be completed on time? What about software bugs and downtime? Had she estimated the costs correctly? Would the project go over budget? In the end, should Heritage Health Resources undertake a significant implementation project to automate its insurance claims process in an effort to improve cash flow?

Scott Shindledecker, Notre Dame of Maryland University

Dawn Grissom, Notre Dame of Maryland University

Elizabeth H. Jones, Notre Dame of Maryland University

Table 1: Heritage Health Resources Cash Flow

Expenses Daily Weekly Monthly Annually

Rent $ 700 $ 8,400

Utilities $ 200 $ 2,400

Phone $ 100 $ 1,200


Therapists $ 400 $ 2,000 $ 8,000 $ 96,000

FT Staff $ 120 $ 600 $ 2,400 $ 28,800

PT Staff $ 28 $ 140 $ 560 $ 6,720

Totals $ 548 $ 2,740 $ 10,960 $ 131,520

Taxes $ 82 $ 411 $ 1,644 $ 19,728

Supplies/Other Expenses $ 50 $ 200 $ 2,400

Total Expenses $ 3,201 $ 13,804 $ 165,648


Client Receivables $ 750 $ 3,750 $ 15,000 $ 180,000

Other Sources of Income $ 250 $ 3,000

Total Income $ 15,250 $ 183,000

Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2015 Society for Case Research.

Source Citation:

Shindledecker, Scott, Dawn Grissom, and Elizabeth H. Jones. “Heritage Health Resources.” Journal of Critical Incidents 8 (2015): 87+. Business Insights: Global. Web. 27 Sept. 2019.


Shindledecker, S. Grissom, D & Jones, E.(June 2018).  Heritage Health Resources. Journal of Critical Incidents, 8,87+.  Retrieved from Article Link (Links to an external site.)


· The paper is about 1,500-2,000 words.

· Formatting and style is APA

· Ensure that all external sources are properly cited within the text and is referenced appropriately at the end of the paper, including your course materials.

· The assignment requires you to analyze the decision making process based on you learning (marginal analysis for extant decisions, opportunity cost, sunk cost fallacy, investment decisions, human decision making biases)

Refer to the grading rubric for building your case report.  The rubric states the grading weights and performance criteria for each aspect of the report.  Make sure you understand that rubric so that you know what is expected and how you will be graded. 

Case Questions:

1) Briefly summarize the main points in the case

2) What are the core business problems?

3) Explain the relevant /applicable analytical concepts you studied and how will you apply them to specific issues in the case

4) Discuss the fixed cost/variable cost mix in the current business operations?

5) What alternatives are available to the decision maker? 

6) How should the decision maker evaluate the alternatives?

7) Do you have concerns about the ability of the decision maker to go through a rational decision making process? Explain. 

8) Is the data presented in the case sufficient for decision making? Explain.

9) What details/data will the decision maker(s) need to evaluate alternatives?

10) In concluding your report, imagine yourself as the decision maker and describe your decision path, based on your learning in this course.