Juvenile Justice/Juvenile Crime

Please respond and write your openion about the article and the lecture powerpoint and how you think this affect children/adolesence speacially from the law

Read and watch the accompanying video.


powerpoint attached already in the files.

How should we respond to young people accused of and/or convicted of criminal behavior?

What should we consider?

What, if any, differences should there be between the way we respond to criminal activity of adults?

•Since the 1960s/1970s the entire US has had a dual system of justice.
One for prosecuting minors accused crimes and one for handling adults. • •Foundation of the juvenile justice system is that the focus should be on rehabilitation. • The adult system generally focuses on punishment.

•In 48 of the 50 states, any youth under 18 who is accused of a crime has their case originated in that state’s juvenile system. These states then allow for a juvenile case to be transferred to the adult system for certain severe crimes in very specific circumstances. • •Two states, New York and North Carolina, prosecute all youth 16 and over as adults in the adult system WITHOUT EXCEPTION. • •Further, NY allows for certain youth as young as 13 to be tried as adults for certain serious offenses. Even these cases originate in the adult system, but can be “removed” to Family Court if a judge so determines.

New York State

Juvenile Justice System -Police -Department of Probation -Prosecutors (NYC this is NOT the DA’s office) -Family Court

Article 3 of the NY State Family Court Act governs the rights and procedures of juvenile cases

Youth in juvenile justice proceedings have many of the same rights as adults in criminal proceedings. -Probable cause -Miranda warnings -Guilt beyond a reasonable doubt –

Differences -No right to a jury -Right to have parents present during questioning by police; parent or guardian has to express that they also understand the Miranda warnings

From Arrest to Trial

•Arrest    Detained  Family Court 

  Probation •Desk Appearance Ticket        Family Court  Refer to Prosecutor  Disposition  Trial  Arraigned

Dispositions on a Juvenile Delinquency Case

•Adjournment in Contemplation of Dismissal (ACD) •Conditional Discharge •Probation for up to 12 months on a misdemeanor; 18 months on a felony •Placement in a facility for 12 months on a misdemeanor, 18 months on a felony, and placement  can be extended annually if the young person doesn’t behave well.

Juvenile Justice vs Adult System

•In the juvenile system, if a kid is sentence, they are usually only sentenced, initially, between 12 and 18 months, and do that time in a place focused on rehabilitation. •Youth in the adult system are subject to the same incarceration standards as the adults and can serve the same amount of time that adults get. They are often held in the same facilities though they are sometimes housed in different units. 

•Parents/Caregivers are an important aspect of juvenile delinquency cases. •This is not always true of the adult system, even for youth under 18.

Examples: police interrogation, detention, dispositional factors 

Criticism of the Juvenile System

•Disproportionate Minority Representation •Harsh treatment for minor offenses •No uniformity – vast difference in dispositions depending on judge •Incarceration of youth is ineffective

Criticism of Youth in Adult System

•Adolescents, no matter the offense, are not adults and should not be held to the same standard. •Youth in prison systems where adults are housed are vulnerable targets for abuse. Measures to try young people as adults is often in reaction to public perception and political climate not actual facts on Juvenile Crime

Willie Bosket, Jr

•Born in 1962, was convicted of numerous crimes as a minor. •In March of 1978, when Bosket was 15, he shot and killed a man during an attempted armed robbery on the subway. Just over a week later, he and a friend killed another person during a robbery. •He was tried in family court at the time and sentenced to five years, the max that was allowed under the law at the time. •With notable speed, NY law makers passed the Juvenile Offender Act of 1978 which allows for youth as young as 13 to be tried as an adult.

[Bosket’s life and family history of the subject of a book called All God’s Children by Fox Butterfield]

Reform Movements in NYC

•Close to Home: a movement to have youth prosecuted in NYC and determined to be in need of incarceration, housed in facilities within the five boroughs and not sent upstate. •Raise the Age: a movement to raise the age in NY to be tried as an adult to 18. -critics say this would be soft on juvenile crime

– Interestingly enough, some argue that kids ages 16 and 17 fare better in adult court on minor offenses than they would if they were in family court.

Raise the Age Facts and Impact 

•Governor Coumo signed “raise the age” into law in New York. The act requires that by October 2019, New York State will no longer AUTOMATICALLY prosecute all 16 and 17 year olds as adults. •NY State prosecutes about 28,000 16 and 17 year olds as adults. 72% of those prosecutions are for misdemeanors. •600 13 to 15 are tried as adults. •70% of 16 and 17 year olds arrested are Black or Latino, of those prosecuted and incarcerated 80% are Black and Latino •Studies have shown that children in the adult system are 34% more likely to be re-arrested than those kept in the juvenile system

•Youth in adult system are reportedly twice as likely to be beaten by staff •50% more likely to be attacked in prison with a weapon •Youth in adult prisons face the highest risk of sexual assault of all inmate populations. •Youth in the adult system do not have access to the same rehabilitative services as youth in juvenile systems. •Solitary confinement severely damages the mental health, physical health, and development of youth, sometimes irreparably.X While some progress has been made in limiting the use of solitary confinement for children, young people continue to be exposed to solitary confinement and prolonged isolation

•Youth in the adult system are 36 times more likely to commit suicide in an adult facility than a juvenile facility.

Institution affiliation

Workplace conflict and resolution

Workplace conflict is a very common occurrence in most organizations. It is manifested in the many disputes that always arise amongst the employees either in the same level or different levels of power. Conflicts often result in low productivity of the individual employees and the organization as a whole. I have at one time been involved in a conflict of interest between junior employees and a senior employee in the tendering department of a certain organization (Trudel et al. 396). The senior employee dictated which firm would supply the organization with furniture without involving the junior employees prompting them dispute the whole process as they felt undermined. To prevent deterioration of the organization’s effectiveness from such occurrences, conflict management concepts needs be employed to resolve the conflict at hand. The conflict management concepts are classified into two categories namely dual concern theory as well as negotiation technique.

As the name suggests, dual concern theory is influenced by how much concern each of the conflicting parties has on self and the other’s interests. That is, one’s interests in relation to their partners. This concept can further be divided to subcategories one of which known as problem solving technique. This technique involves the conflicting parties steering towards an agreement that satisfies both of them. Thus, the parties involved are required to rank their interests in the order of priority and preference. The most important issues of each party are taken while ignoring the least important.

Promotion of teamwork amongst the employees is equally a significant strategy towards workplace conflict resolution. It results in a friendly environment allowing effectiveness of the yielding technique. This involves incorporating and giving space for others’ will while pushing for approval of one’s interests. Teamwork also promotes good communication between individuals in different ranks and thus the seniors will work effectively with their juniors without disputes (Trudel et al. 396).

Power intervention strategy plays a significant role in returning the organization’s productivity in order when disputes arise. This usually involves the top management intervening and imposing solutions to the conflict. However, while doing this, the management should be impartial and thus, not take sides so as to ensure fairness in the judgment they impose. Under this also, avoidance can be applied as a strategy where the interaction between the conflicting parties is reduced by separating them especially through reshuffles. In our case above, the management could intervene and decide whether the firm at hand was the best to win the tender.

 Negotiation concept involves bringing the conflicting parties together and reaching an agreement that is acceptable to both of them. It involves listening and speaking out one’s interests. A ground is created where the two come together and interact freely to discuss the issue at hand. Each one of them gives their preferences and defends them. After the explicit proposals are tabled by the involved parties, bargaining starts seeking to reach a common interest. However, each works hard to advance as well as protecting their interests. Therefore, an individual prioritizes their interests than they prioritize the agreement itself (Trudel et al. 402). In our above case, the senior should table the firm that he prefers be given the tender and the juniors table theirs. After tabling, they should then defend each interest while trying to convince each other. Finally, they could conclude that certain equipments come from the firm preferred by the senior official while the rest be ordered from the firm preferred by the juniors.

Conflict management through any of the discussed techniques will boost the effectiveness of the employees and the whole organization. Therefore, their role in organization conflict resolution should not be underestimated.


Work Cited

Trudel, Jeannie, and Thomas G. Reio. “Managing workplace incivility: The role of conflict management styles—antecedent or antidote?.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 22.4 (2011): 395-423.

Export business plan


You are assigned the following product and will create an Export Business Plan from the United States to one of the listed foreign countries: Product: United States Beef. Exported to: Canada or China. See attached assignment document for more defined details (zero plagiarism).
InstructionsThe requirements are in the attachment. Has to be APA. APA Formatting Requirements:
Paper is to be a minimum of 11 pages in length (not including cover page, purpose page, table of context, or reference page) and must be in APA format to include:
• The use of headings and subheadings
• Times New Roman 12-point font
• Double-spaced lines
• Two spaces after punctuation
• 1-inch margins
• Paragraphs with a minimum of 4 sentences
• Can have 1-3 supporting graphs and tables (must be properly sited)
• The first line of each paragraph should be indented 1/2 inch
• Include in-text citations for each thought that is not your own (information derived from another source) 
• A reference (or works cited) page

I prefer no numbering. Typical paragraphs, with titles and subtitles. The book had it like this: I. Purpose 

II. Table of Contents 

III. Executive Summary 

IV. Introduction 

V. Situational Analysis 
VI. Country History 

Why Doesn’t GM Sell Crack?”

DescriptionIn his essay “ Michael Moore references a business executive who says, “A company must be able to do whatever it wants to make a profit.” Moore strongly disagrees, arguing against unrestrained capitalism at the expense of America’s citizens and communities. So, whose side do 
you take, and why? As you formulate your argument (in a short MLA format essay of at least 2.5 full double-spaced pages), consider Moore’s five measures to “protect Ourselves,” and be sure to also include the following text in your paper: “The American Dream” (Brandon King)

Write a 2.5 double spaced paper disagreeing with him please.
instructions Yes it is double spaced. You do not need add a works cited page but you do need to add quotes from Why doesnt gm sell crack in the body paragraphs and you need to use the source, The American Dream” as it says in the prompt at least once.

Analyze/Reflect/Connect Essay

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For this Analyze/Reflect/Connect essay, your text will again be a video: 

Your essay should address the following: 

(1) Analyze/reflect: Why did the Romans design and construct planned cities and what were their most important features (highlight at least three)? 

(2) Connect: What Roman engineering accomplishment do you consider most influential to our own time and why

CapraTek Software Project Overview. Computer Science

CapraTek Software Project Overview

Imagine that you are a software architect that has been hired by CapraTek to create an IEEE Standard 1058-based Software Development Plan for all their future in-house development projects. The document below has been sent to you by CapraTek’s CIO.


I am excited to have you on board to help us in defining our future software develop practices! I just want to share relevant information about our company. It is not a complete picture, but it is enough to get you started. Please feel free to make and state any assumptions you might need to make in areas that I have not provided sufficient information. We can talk about those when we refine our plan. For now, I need a polished first draft to share with our stakeholders by the end of next month.

We are a longtime leader in computer server technology but are now shifting our effort to focus on Alfred!, an integrated wireless smart-home hub that seamlessly connects household electronics, appliances, and devices. While we have traditionally outsourced our software development to third party companies, we have now decided to bring all development in-house with the hope that it will decrease design and development time and improve software quality. Many existing projects have either failed, or gone over time and budget, while much of the current software has become stale, due to poorly maintained code, and needs a proper plan.

One of our biggest challenges is changing the way we produce our product. We are interested in introducing Agile for software development, but many of our personnel are more familiar with traditional project management. Many have a basic understanding of Agile and a keen interest to adopt it, but they need a blueprint from which to work. We understand that there are several Agile methodologies and are looking for guidance on selecting the one that fits best. We hope you can help!

Our Team of Developers

We currently have 10 in-house developers that have experience with a mixed set of programming languages. Based on previously outsourced work, we are planning to increase this to 20–25 developers, but are not sure of what non-developer resources will be required by Agile. The organization is willing to hire additional non-development support staff (that is, PMs, QA, testers, administrators, etc.) based on Agile requirements.


We have three large software development projects planned for next year that are each similar in scope. We need to extend our Alfred! Web application and build both iOS and Android apps for users to control the hub. Using traditional project management techniques, we were able to build our original Alfred! Web application with 6 software developers and one project manager in 12 months. Our plans are to rewrite the entire application to improve the current hub’s performance. There will be few added features in the first iteration. The mobile apps will have similar functionality and will be relegated to phones for the first release, although we will be incorporating responsive design that should increase its reach to other devices.


We currently use the following technology and plan to continue to do so:

Microsoft Xamarin for cross-platform development.

C# applications using Visual Studio.

ASP.NET Web applications using Visual Studio.

Legacy Java applications using NetBeans.

Amazon Web Services (AWS).

Red Hat Linux.

Microsoft Server 2016.

Oracle 12c and SQL Server 2016 databases.

Here are some of the requirements and technical challenges facing projects that we would like addressed:

Servers: Dedicated servers need to be used for each process including databases and Web applications.

Bug Tracking: Most of the issues have been dealt with through e-mails or word of mouth. It is important that issues and bugs are tracked in a single application.

Version Control: Existing applications, when updated, do not have a trail of code being updated. There needs to be more accountability for developers and ensuring that all changes are being tracked against bug tickets.

Asset creation: Any images, videos, or other multimedia needs to be developed in a common tool that can be edited by any other individual. Common standard file formats should be used for any images and videos that are created.


****** Comparing Agile Methodologies

Review the CapraTek Overview found in the discussion Resources as required.

There are several different Agile methodologies that CapraTek might use for its new software development process. Briefly compare two Agile methodologies and provide arguments for the selection of one of them based upon your understanding of CapraTek’s requirements and needs.

Why might your choice be superior to a waterfall approach?

CIS510 Week 2 Discussion

Your first post in the discussion needs to answer the questions asked. Then read and respond to other students. These answers should also have research, not just personal opinion. Opinions are great and welcome, but back it up first with research.

“Build or Buy”

A company that is looking to replace a legacy system. The company is evaluating whether it is better to “build” a new replacement or better to “buy” an existing out of the box system. Please research and in paragraph form:

  1. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each building your own or buying an existing system.
  2. Give your opinion, after your research, which option do you think is better. (There is no correct answer