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Your Reflective Journal which will refer to theories that have been explored during the semester.
Your Journal will focus on three vignettes which you will describe and analyse. These vignettes come from your own experience of leadership and may involve either your experiences as a leader, or your observations of other leaders in action with whom you have associated. Each vignette will contain a summary of the story which you want to highlight, and then a scholarly critique of that story using relevant leadership theories from class discussions.
1. Brief opening statement which summarises Journal (about 200 words).
2. Three vignettes with a scholarly critique, using the literature (about 800 words each).
3. A final section which summarises your learning over the semester and discusses
things that have changed in your understandings of leadership (about 400 words).
4. This assignment is about reflecting on your own life and applying scholarly reasoning and critique to specific events that alerted you to leadership issues.
5. The group discussions in class of particular theories will inform your reflections and you need to show these in your Journal.
6. It is important that you use the first person in your Journal and that you disclose your thought processes and feelings in it.
7. You have been experiencing leadership all of your life and even if you have never had a formal title of ‘leader’, you have, nonetheless, experienced leadership in a number of different ways throughout your life – in your family, country and workplaces. Your life is a rich resource of leadership experiences.
8. In the concluding section you need to show how are your thoughts have changed or remained static over the time of studying this paper.
WRITING WORKSHOP 3
152707 Leading and Organizing Change 代写
152707 Leading and Organizing Change
These slides can be viewed at:
You will learn how to:
• Structure an analytical paragraph, as part
of a reflective journal entry
ASSIGNMENT QUESTION 1
Suggested Journal Structure
Introduction (one or two paragraphs)
Vignette 1 (four paragraphs)
Vignette 2 (four paragraphs)
Vignette 3 (four paragraphs)
Conclusion (two or three paragraphs)
Suggested structure for each vignette
Story of a leadership experience (1 paragraph)
Analysis of the leadership experience (1
Critical discussion of the leadership experience (2
TASK 1: Story of a
You will reread the leadership story from week 1.
But two of the elements of the story are missing.
Identify the two missing elements.
I was Training Manager of an organisation in London. There were 10 trainers in
my team. I developed a new assessment system, based on 10 different criteria
that trainees had to achieve. For each criterion, they received 0, 1, or 2 points
– adding up to a maximum of 20. Any student who received 12 points or more
out of 20 passed. I piloted this new system myself with a group of trainees and
it worked like a dream. I made a few minor improvements and then presented
the improved system to the other trainers, expecting them to adopt it
immediately and enthusiastically. Instead, they complained that they found the
new system confusing and time-consuming and continued to assess the
trainees in their own way. I felt frustrated and disappointed that they couldn’t
see the obvious logic of the new system and that I was powerless to make
Typical elements of a story
Issue / Challenge / Problem
Evaluation is an optional extra element
The missing elements were:
Issue / Challenge / Problem
Outcome (this was incomplete)
I was Training Manager of an organisation in London. There were 10
trainers in my team. I was concerned about the way they assessed the
trainees’ projects. Too many trainees were failing and some complained
that they didn’t understand why. As Head of Training, I saw it as my duty to
solve this problem. So, I developed a new assessment system, based on
10 different criteria that trainees had to achieve. For each criterion, they
received 0, 1, or 2 points – adding up to a maximum of 20. Any student
who received 12 points or more out of 20 passed. I piloted this new system
myself with a group of trainees and it worked like a dream. I made a few
minor improvements and then presented the improved system to the other
trainers, expecting them to adopt it immediately and enthusiastically.
Instead, they complained that they found the new system confusing and
time-consuming and continued to assess the trainees in their own way. I
felt frustrated and disappointed that they couldn’t see the obvious logic of
the new system and that I was powerless to make them. A short while
later, I resigned. It made me wonder if I was really ‘leadership material’.
An analysis of experience
Establishes a new perspective on the experience
Suggests possible causes and effects
Identifies issues for further investigation
Raises significant questions
TASK 2: Analysis of an
experience of leadership
Read this analytical paragraph based on the story
you have read (in task 1)
How effectively does it analyse the experience?
This experience highlights the ‘inert conservatism’ of organisations (Brown,
2003, p. 24). This was what caused the other trainers to reject the innovation
and continue to use the old assessment system. Conservative organisational
cultures are common in contexts where boththe internal and external
environments are stable (Smith, 2004). Organisational culture can be
measured according to the extent to which the values, beliefs and practices
are in alignment (Jones, 2003). Conservativeorganisational cultures are
characterised by ‘groupthink’. This phenomenon means that members share
common beliefs and values. However, as a result, they are resistant to
change (Evans, 2001). Organisations need to encourage diversity in
recruitment and provide channels for divergent options in order to avoid the
limitations of groupthink. Effective strategies include Edward de Bono’s ‘six
hats’ approach to meetings. This encourages members to approach issues
from six different perspectives so that they avoid closing off their decision-
making process before they have had a chance to fully consider the various
aspects of the problem (Bennett, 2010).
Although this is well written, it is NOT an
effective analysis of experience because …
• there’s too little about the experience
• the claims it includes about the problem and solutions are
too absolute; reflection means NOT jumping to
• the paragraph raises no questions for further investigation
• it is closed, where it needs to be open; if you know
it all, you have nothing to learn!
Read another analytical paragraph based on the
story you have read (in task 1)
Identify the ways it successfully analyses the
It was clear to me at the time that this was not a successful attempt at change
leadership. But back then, my response was to personalise the failure in terms of my
own shortcomings and those of my colleagues. What I did not have was a clear
concept of leadership roles and methods or a framework for leading changes (such
as Tamworth, 1996). In retrospect, my story seems very much focused on myself as
the originatorand implementer of each of the few stages my story included. It makes
me ask, ‘What kind of leader was I, and why? Another thing that strikes me looking
back on this experience is my dependence on the rationality of my project alone.
Even now, it convinces me. Why didn’t it convince my colleagues? Lastly, that word
‘powerless’ stands out. How can one be a leader and at the same time, ‘powerless’.
It begs the question: Canone be a leader without power? Indeed, if not from the
leader, where can the power be found to drive forward the difficult process of
CRITERIA FOR ISSUES
Issues and questions which are raised in the analysis should be:
? relevant to your story (i.e. related to the context, problem, response or
? related to significant issues in Change Leadership (e.g. power, role of
leader, leadership style, stages in leading a change, gender).
? truly problematic (i.e. not simple, not fully understood).
? different from the issues and questions in your other two vignettes.
Example phrases in
Establishing a new perspective
to comment on your past understanding:
• Back then / At the time / What I did not have was …
to comment or introduce questions based on your present understanding
of what happened:
• In retrospect / Looking back (on this experience) …
Raising significant questions
• It makes me ask, ‘What kind of leader was I, and why?’
• How can one be a leader and at the same time, ‘powerless’?
• It begs the question: Can one be a leader without power?
• Indeed, if not from the leader, where can the power be found to drive forward
the difficult process of change?
Identifying problematic issues
• What I did not have was a clear concept of leadership roles and methods
or a framework for leading changes.
• My story seems very much focused on myself as the originator and
implementor of each of the few stages my story included.
• Another thing that strikes me … is my dependence on the rationality of
my project alone.
• Lastly, that word ‘powerless’ stands out
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without written permission from the copyright owner. Please
note that examples are provided for illustration of writing
principles only and no reliance should be placed on any of the
ideas referred to in the texts.
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152707 Leading and Organizing Change