Nursing

Joe’s GFR

Course Objective:

“Describe how the glomerular filtration rate is measured.”

Mr. Joe Sixpack is a patient with kidney disease who presents to your clinic for monitoring. You notice on his chart that his GFR was estimated through inulin administration to be about 35 ml/min. What does this tell you about the health of his kidneys? Mr. Sixpack is taking a medication that is normally excreted from the body in the urine. You look at his blood work and find that the concentration of this medication in his plasma is much higher than normal.

The Question for you to answer and discuss is:

How does his decreased GFR explain the elevated level of medication in his plasma?

Reply the discussion of ROSE  Rose discussion starts : Mr Sixpack is taking a medication ………and bone disease .’

Mr. Sixpack is taking a medication that is normally excreted from the body in the urine. His blood work is indicating that the concentration of this medication in his plasma is much higher than normal. This would cause concern that his kidney function has been reduced. The major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals. {1}

The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium, and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism. {1}

The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions: remove waste products from the body, remove drugs from the body, balance the body’s fluids, release hormones that regulate blood pressure, produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones and control the productions of red blood cells. {1}

Mr. Sixpack has already been diagnosed with kidney disease. However, it seems evident by his decreased glomerular filtration rate and the unusually high level of medication in his plasma that his kidney function has been reduced.

The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. {2} Mr. Sixpack’s GFR of 35 ml/min would suggest that he is in stage 3b of chronic kidney disease which is catagorized by a range of an estimated GFR between 30 and 44. Many people with stage 3 kidney disease do not have any symptoms. If there are symptoms, there may be: swelling in the hands and feet, back pain and urinating more or less than normal.  At this stage, one is more likely to have health complications as waste builds up in the body, and the kidneys are not working well, such as: high blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease. {3}

References:

{1}  How Your Kidneys Work, National Kidney Foundation, (Date of publication unknown), https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/howkidneyswork#:~:text=Here’s%20how%20kidneys%20perform%20their,bloodstream%20by%20way%20of%20veins

{2} Glomerular Filtration Rate, MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 31 July 2020, https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/glomerular-filtration-rate-gfr-test/

{3} Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease CKD), American Kidney Fund, 17 June 2020, https://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd/stages-

References:

{1}  How Your Kidneys Work, National Kidney Foundation, (Date of publication unknown), https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/howkidneyswork#:~:text=Here’s%20how%20kidneys%20perform%20their,bloodstream%20by%20way%20of%20veins

{2} Glomerular Filtration Rate, MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 31 July 2020, https://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/glomerular-filtration-rate-gfr-test/

{3} Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease CKD), American Kidney Fund, 17 June 2020, https://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd/stages-

BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, AND SOCIETY

Select a company and highlights positive or negative performance in ethics or social responsibility arenas. Study a well-known firm that modeled for significant positive leadership in corporate social responsibility or ethics. Stress the detailed impacts to the stakeholders and identify how it managed to do so. Make an introduction about the highlight of this company’s key policies and the areas of improvement which you intend to make suggestions.

BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, AND SOCIETY

Select a company and highlights positive or negative performance in ethics or social responsibility arenas. Study a well-known firm that modeled for significant positive leadership in corporate social responsibility or ethics. Stress the detailed impacts to the stakeholders and identify how it managed to do so. Make an introduction about the highlight of this company’s key policies and the areas of improvement which you intend to make suggestions.

MISLEADING STATISTICS

Misleading Statistics

Statistics are powerful and convincing when used properly. This feature of statistical reasoning, however, also makes them liable to misuse. In this week’s assignment, you will find a legitimate statistic and explain how it might be used to mislead an audience.

·  Start by searching the internet for a reliable statistic. Make sure the statistic you find comes from an original or primary source – whether it be a peer-reviewed article, think-tank, or other organization. Do not use news articles that report the findings of a study; use the original study itself. Please remember to cite your source.

·  After you locate your statistic, explain how it might be used to mislead an audience into embracing conclusions that the statistic does not support by playing the role of someone who is trying to lie with statistics.

·  Design a fake advertisement or news story in which you will try to use the statistic in question to make a persuasive point.

o  Your advertisement or story can consist of a written document, graphic, or video.

o  Whatever you decide to do, you should feature a depiction or description of the statistic and an explanation of how it might be used to support a misleading agenda.

·  After creating your fake advertisement or news story, include a short one paragraph statement on why it is misleading and what can be done to avoid being misled by it.

THERAPY WITH OLDER ADULTS

discussion: Therapy with Older Adults

Clients who are older have often times been dealing with their mental health disorder their entire lives, whiles other disorders may be brought on through the aging process or the trauma of losing a lifelong partner. Treatment can be challenging for both the client and the therapist. For this Discussion, you will focus on therapeutic approaches for an older adult presented in a case study.

Learning Objectives
Students will:
  • Assess clients presenting with depression
  • Analyze therapeutic approaches for treating clients presenting with depression
  • Evaluate outcomes for clients presenting with depression

To prepare:·       

  • Download and review the Week 10: Case Study from this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!

ECON10005: Quantitative Methods assignment

ECON10005: Quantitative Methods  assignment 代写

ECON10005: Quantitative Methods 1

Second Semester, 2017
First Assignment
Due by: 1 pm on Monday 4 September 2017
Students must read the following instructions carefully before working on the assignment.
Assignments of those who fail to follow the instructions will not be accepted.
• This assignment must be submitted online via LMS by 1 pm on the above due date.
Any assignments not submitted by the due date and time will be given a mark of zero.
This assignment is worth 7.5 per cent of the final grade for Quantitative Methods 1.
• A group of two, three or four students (but no more than four students) may work
together and submit one set of assignment answers for the group. All members of the
group, however, MUST be enrolled in the same tutorial. Individuals may work alone
if they wish and submit their own assignment answers, but I would urge students to
work in groups.
• Assignment submission has two stages: 1. Register your assignment group and 2.
Submit the assignment online via LMS.
Students must register their groups by going to the link that will be made available on
the LMS in week 5 (announcement will be sent out). Assignments of groups which are
not registered through this system will not be accepted. A separate link will be given to
submit your assignment, once the assignment group registration process is completed.
• For assignments submitted as a group, all valid group members will receive the same
mark for the assignment. Students that attempt to submit an assignment with a group
that is not in their own tutorial, or in a group with more than four members, will not
receive any credit for the assignment. Students will form their own groups.
• All the assignments should be typed and should be converted into PDF before
submitting online via LMS. Students must preview their assignment after uploading on
the LMS to see if they have uploaded the correct/complete assignment and the
formatting is in order as in their original document. Any version of the assignment
submitted after the deadline due to formatting issues or submitting an incomplete
version will not be accepted.
• Please make sure to include a cover page with student IDs and names of all the
members in the group.
The purpose of this assignment is to give you practice working with the underlying concepts of
quantitative methods, and to give you feedback on your understanding of these concepts.
A/Prof Liana Jacobi
Department of Economics
The University of Melbourne
2
Question 1
Background
Are young people more likely to do risky things? This is the perception that exists in many
societies. Young people are thought to be more “reckless” than older people, taking more
chances, and not thinking as much about the future. But does this view have any basis? What
is the evidence on the level of risk-taking by people of different ages?
Newspoll is a company that regularly surveys Australians on a range of issues, including their
views on various politicians and political matters. This company also asks Australians about a
number of issues unrelated to politics. A few years ago Newspoll surveyed 1200 Australians
over the age of 18 by telephone between 28 February and 2 March 2014. Individuals were
chosen for inclusion in the survey randomly using a list of all home telephone numbers in
Australia. These individuals were asked 12 questions regarding potential risky behaviour.
For this assignment, we will focus on 2 of the 12 questions asked in the survey, and their
relationship with age.
The first question you will investigate is as follows:
Would you say that you do the following thing every time, most times, sometimes, rarely or
never?
Exceed the speed limit while driving at some stage by more than 5 kilometres per hour.
The responses by age group are provided in the table below. The numbers are the total
responses in each age group, e.g. 7 people aged 18 to 24 stated that they speed every time
they drive.
18-24  25-34  35-49  50-64  65+  TOTAL
Every time  7  10  18  9  3  47
Most times  5  9  25  15  4  58
Sometimes  39  58  159  130  87  473
Rarely  22  42  87  78  104  333
Never  31  24  68  52  114  289
TOTAL  104  143  357  284  312  1200
The second question of interest is as follows:
How often do you do the following thing? Would it be at least once a week, at least once a
month, a few times a year, once a year, less often or never?
Consume food or drinks that are past their “best before” or “use by” date.
The responses by age group are provided in the table below.
18-24  25-34  35-49  50-64  65+  TOTAL
At least once a week  4  3  14  17  16  54
At least once a month  12  15  36  38  36  137
Few times a year  6  17  76  49  59  207
Once a year  8  7  22  12  20  69
Less often  12  12  29  26  30  109
Never  62  89  180  142  151  624
TOTAL  104  143  357  284  312  1200

ECON10005: Quantitative Methods 计量方法 assignment 代写

3
Complete the following tasks
a. Provide an appropriate graph and table to compare the varied responses to the first
question above on the likelihood of speeding by age group. Explain briefly why you
chose this particular graph type and table for this objective. Is there any evidence that
young people are more likely to speed? Explain your answer. Provide at least one
potential reason for your findings here.
b. Provide an appropriate graph and table to compare the varied responses to the second
question above regarding the likelihood of consuming food or drinks beyond their “use
by” date. Explain briefly why you chose this particular graph type and table for this
objective. Is there any evidence that young people are more likely to engage in such
risky behaviour regarding their health than older people? Explain your answer. Provide
at least one potential reason for your findings here.
c. Considering both questions investigated above, do you think that there are any potential
sources of bias? Write down and briefly explain all potential sources of bias in this
survey. Be specific about the underlying causes of bias for this particular survey and the
two specific questions investigated.
(12 marks)
Question  2
Background
There has been considerable interest in recent years on house prices in Australia. Some
commentators have suggested that recent house price increases have been excessive, and prices
are likely to fall considerably in the future. Most concern regards house prices in Sydney and
Melbourne, but concerns have also been raised about other cities in Australia.
Your task is to provide information to illustrate how house prices have moved over time in four
major cities in Australia: Brisbane, Canberra, Adelaide and Darwin
The file “Houseprices.xlsx” contains the median house prices for Brisbane, Canberra, Adelaide
and Darwin from March 2002 to March 2017. The data has been collected by the Australian
Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and is available on their website:
http://www.abs.gov.au/
House price information in the Excel file is based on the median data reported for “Established
House Transfers” from the following ABS release:
“Residential Property Price Indexes: Eight Capital Cities” – catalogue number 6416.0
The online release includes Excel tables of time series data for each capital city in Australia.
The data provided for this question has been sourced from “Tables 4 and 5. Median Price
(unstratified) and Number of Transfers (Capital City and Rest of State)” from the June 2017
issue.
4
Complete the following tasks
a. Provide numerical descriptive statistics in terms of measures of central location (mean,
median, mode) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation, variance, coefficient of
variation, range, min, max) for each data series, i.e. house prices in Brisbane, Canberra,
Adelaide and Darwin from March 2002 to March 2017. Based on those measures,
compare the location and variation in median house prices across in this period across
the four cities.
b. Generate a histogram for each house price series. Briefly describe their shapes.
To make your histograms comparable, ensure each histogram uses the same set of
intervals. You may wish to use an interval width of $50,000.
c. Construct and provide the following percentiles of the house prices in Darwin: the 25 th ,
50 th and 75 th percentiles. Provide a brief description in words of what these percentiles
tell us. Are these percentile measures consistent with the shape of the distribution
observed in your graph in part (b)? Explain briefly.
d. Provide one appropriate graph to illustrate and compare movements over time in median
house prices in Brisbane, Canberra, Adelaide and Darwin, from March 2002 to March
2017.
e. Briefly describe in words the relative levels and movements over time in the three
median house price series.
f. Based on your graph in (d), would you say that there is evidence of any relationship
between the Adelaide and Brisbane house price series? Next, provide an appropriate
measure of the strength and sign of the relationship between the two series. Describe
your measure in words, and describe what you find, focusing on the strength and sign of
any relationship.
Repeat this question, but this time compare prices in Darwin and Canberra.
(18 marks)
Question 3
a.  The joint probability distribution of X and Y is shown in the following table.
(i) Determine the marginal probability distributions of X and Y.
(ii) Are X and Y independent? (Hint: 2 random variables are independent if p(x, y) = p(x)p(y)
for all pairs (x, y).)
(iii) Find P(Y = 2 | X = 1).
5
b.  Historical data collected at the Commonwealth Bank in Sydney revealed that 80% of
all customers applying for a loan are accepted. Suppose that 50 new loan applications
are selected at random. Define a random variable X as the number of loans accepted
by the bank (number of successes).
(i) Compute the expected value and the standard deviation of the number of loans that will be
accepted by the bank.
(ii) What is the probability that at least 42 loans will be accepted? Use Excel to answer this
question.
(iii) What is the probability that the number of loans rejected is between 10 and 15, inclusive?
Use Excel to answer this question.
(iv) Use Excel to compute and then graph the probability distribution of X. Provide the graph.
(You do not need to provide a table for the probability distribution.)
(10 marks)
Your written answers for all questions should not exceed 2500 words (approximately 8-9
pages).

ECON 1042 Macroeconomics

ECON 1042 Macroeconomics 2 Semester 2 2017
Mid Semester Assignment
The Reserve Bank of Australia released its monthly Minutes of the Monetary Policy Meeting of the Reserve Bank Board for July
https://www.rba.gov.au/monetary-policy/rba-board-minutes/2017/2017-08-01.html

Task:
A surprise meeting has been scheduled between the Federal Treasurer and their state counterparts. They are particularly concerned about the direction in which the interest rates might move.

Using your knowledge of topics 1-6, write a ministerial brief critically assessing economic data  from the Australian Bureau of Statistic (ABS) and Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) websites and discussing the likely direction of the next change and its impact on the economy for the State of Victoria and either Western Australia or Queensland.
It is mandatory to source the information carefully. The IS-LM equations and charts demonstrating how you arrived at your conclusions need to be included in a “technical appendix“.

(10 marks)
Word limit 1000 words

ECON 1042 Macroeconomics  宏观经济学 assignment 代写

How to write a Ministerial Brief
What is a Brief:
Briefingsareused to keep decision makers informed about the issues they are responsible for. Ingovernment,briefings are the principal means of communication between governmentmanagers and their ministers.
A briefing note is a shortpaper that quickly and effectively informs a decision-maker about an issue. A useful briefingnote distils often complex information into a short, well-structured document.
Characteristics of a good Briefing Note:
A well-prepared briefing note quickly and efficiently fills a person in on an issue. The mostvaluable BN is clear, concise and easy to read. To succeed, a briefing note should be:
·         short: one to two pages, and always as short as possible
·         concise: every word isused as efficiently as possible
·         clear: keep it simple and to the point; always keep your reader firmly in mind
·         reliable: the information in a briefing note must be accurate, sound anddependable; any missing information or questions about the information should bepointed out
·         readable: use plain language and design your BN for maximum readability.
How is a Briefing Note structured?
Briefing notes often follow a standard format.They havethree main parts:
The purpose (usually stated as the issue, topic or purpose) – states what has happened, is happening, will happen or might happen that requires his or her attention. When appropriate, it states what strengths (internal capabilities), weaknesses (internal vulnerabilities), opportunities (external circumstances that can be exploited) or threats (external circumstances that present a danger)exist.(SWOT)
In addressing SWOT, the Considerations section will take account of PESTLE factors as needed, i.e.
• political factors (e.g., public opinion);
• economic factors (e.g., budget considerations, financial impact on stakeholders);
• social factors (e.g., impact on education, culture, families, the elderly, employees);
• technological factors (e.g., technological capabilities and constraints);
• legal factors (e.g., requirements of law, regulations, treaties or contracts); and
• ecological factors (e.g., impact on wildlife, oceans, greenhouse gases).
A summary of the facts (what this section contains and the headings used will bedetermined by the purpose of the briefing note). Should condense the key messages of the briefing note. Include a deadline for a decision, signature or action, if needed.
The conclusion (this may be a conclusion, a recommendation or other advice, orboth).

MAE101 Individual Assignment

MAE101 Economic Principles, T2, 2017
Individual Written Assignment
Due date Monday 4 th September 2017
This assignment is worth 25% of your final mark for MAE101. There is a 2,000 word
limit.
Please read the following instructions carefully:
An electronic copy must be submitted to the unit website by 11:59 pm Monday 4 th
September 2017. 1 You are strongly encouraged to submit before then to ensure that it
is submitted on time. Assignments submitted after the due date without an approved
extension will incur a penalty as follows:
• 5% will be deducted from available marks for each day up to five days (that is, you
will lose 1.25 marks for each 24 hour period after the due date, up to five days);
and

经济学原理MAE101  Individual Assignment  代写

• where work is submitted more than five days after the due date, the assignment
will not be marked and 0% be awarded.
Digital literacy is one of the Deakin’s Graduate Learning outcomes and among the
Unit Learning Outcomes of MAE101. It requires students to be capable of using
modern technologies to find, use, and disseminate information. To achieve this goal,
it is required that all contents of your assignment should be digitally produced,
including explanations, diagrams, etc.
To receive full marks you must show clear development and expression of economic
ideas in clear paragraphs in addition to the correct answers. Please use concise,
properly constructed sentences and paragraphs. Please also use 12pt sized font. You
must cite all ideas that are not your own. Do not just quote chunks of text – you must
express your answer in your own words.
You may study with other students, discuss the assignment with whomever you wish
and even outline answers with others. However, you must write this assignment on
your own. Software will check each assignment for plagiarism and collusion. We
realize that some sentences will occur in different students’ work because there are
few ways to say them, e.g., “Price decreased from P1 to P2.” However there should be
few such matches between any two assignments. Even the process of resolving the
case of accidentally matching someone else’s work can be time-consuming and
upsetting for students.
1 All assignments are to be submitted online in the assignment drop box in CloudDeakin.
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
~  2 ~
Plagiarism and collusion constitute extremely serious academic misconduct. They
are forms of cheating, and severe penalties are associated with them. So, please do
your own work. It is also very good preparation for the exam.
By clicking the SUBMIT button to submit your assignment to the unit assignment
drop box, you are declaring that the assignment work is entirely your own except
where material quoted or paraphrased is acknowledged in the text. You are also
declaring that it has not been submitted for assessment in any other unit or course.
For more information about plagiarism and collusion, please go to the Study Support
website: http://www.deakin.edu.au/current-students/study-support/study-
skills/handouts/refer-plag.php
You must draw all diagrams by software. Please keep in mind that your future
employers will expect you to be proficient with computers and that hand-drawn
diagrams are usually unacceptable in professional business documents. A short video
clip on how to draw graphs by computer in MSWord is available under the Assessment
Resources, Assignment 1 folder in CloudDeakin.
In some MSWord document submissions, graphs and other parts of the assignment
may disappear and hence receive no grade. Hence, we prefer that you convert the
assignment to PDF.
Requirements:
• Read through your work prior to submission, checking your spelling and
grammar.
• No more than 2,000 words in total excluding the task statements, tables,
diagrams, and references. It is preferable if you do not include the actual task
statements; just include the task number.
• All content is electronically generated.
• Convert your assignment to PDF format and check that all text, graphs, tables
and formatting are accurate.
• Make sure that you are using correct referencing.
There are 80 marks total for Assignment 1. This will be converted to 25% of your
final assessment.
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
~  3 ~
ABOLITION OF MAHOGANY HARVESTING, INCENTIVES, AND HOMICIDE
Background
An important area of economics is the analysis of conflict. While many social and
political factors drive conflict, we here focus on economic causes. The aim of this task
is to explore the links between economic activity and violence. We will use as a case
study the harvesting of big leaf mahogany from Brazilian forests. Big leaf mahogany
is one of the most beautiful and valuable woods in the world. 2 Brazil has been the
main producer of big leaf mahogany timber. Concerns with excessive destruction of
the Amazon and decline in the number of mahogany trees led to the eventual abolition
of harvesting of big leaf mahogany in 2001. In this case study we will investigate
whether making the harvesting of mahogany illegal had the unintended consequence
of increasing homicide. When markets are legal, disputes can be settled through the
justice system. However, when an activity becomes illegal, the justice system is no
longer available and disputes are often resolved through direct violence.
Figure 1: Brazilian big leaf mahogany forest
Figure 2:  Harvesting Brazilian mahogany
2 International trade of mahogany timber can be traced back to around 1700.
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
~  4 ~
Figure 3 illustrates patterns in Brazilian mahogany exports and other tropical timber
species during four time periods: (A) before government policy towards harvesting
changed significantly; (B) the period between 1999 and 2001 when 85% of licenses to
harvest were revoked; (C) the period 2001 to 2008 when harvesting was banned but
the government did not actively enforce the ban; and (D) the post-2008 period when
greater penalties and enforcement were implemented. The graph illustrates that these
government interventions reduced reported mahogany exports. However, at the same
time, there was a significant increase in exports of “other tropical timber species” once
regulations made it harder to harvest mahogany (period B) and then when mahogany
harvesting was made illegal (period C). Exports of all timber products fell once greater
enforcement of the law was introduced in 2008. These movements suggest that illegal
harvesting of mahogany continued in the guise of ‘other’ timber until the ban on
harvesting was enforced.
Figure 3:  Government Intervention and Mahogany and Tropical Timber Exports
Notes: The thick black line is the sum of Brazilian exports of mahogany and other tropical timber species.
Source: Modified from Chimeli, A. B. and Soares, R. R. The Use of Violence in Illegal Markets: Evidence from Mahogany
Trade in the Brazilian Amazon, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, forthcoming.
Our two broad research questions are:
1. What impact did government intervention have on equilibrium price, quantity,
and welfare?
2. Did the ban on mahogany harvesting increase homicide?
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
~  5 ~
Task A: Welfare Effects of Government Intervention
For this task you need to consider the market for mahogany from a theoretical
perspective, i.e. you do not need to analyse data. To simplify the analysis we will
assume that there are no externalities involved in the production or consumption of
mahogany. (Externalities are discussed in week 9 of the course.)
(a) In an attempt to reduce the harvesting of mahogany, the Brazilian government
introduced a tax on producers for each ton of mahogany harvested. Use a demand
and supply diagram to illustrate the market for big leaf mahogany before and after
the tax. Explain the impact of the tax on equilibrium price, quantity traded, and
welfare. (For this question assume a standard downward sloping demand curve
and upward sloping supply curve.)
(5 Marks)
(b) In 1998, the Brazilian government introduced a harvesting quota that limited how
much mahogany could be harvested. Use a demand and supply diagram to
illustrate and explain the impact of the quota on equilibrium price, quantity traded,
and welfare. (For this question ignore the existence of the tax.)
(5 Marks)
(c) In 2001, the harvesting of mahogany was made illegal. For each of the following
three scenarios, use a separate demand and supply diagram to illustrate and
briefly discuss what happens to the equilibrium price and quantity traded. (Hint:
consider whether the change affects any of the determinants of demand or of
supply, and in which direction.)
i.  Producers fear punishment and the consumption of mahogany products
becomes undesirable because of the stigma associated with possessing such
products.
(3 Marks)
ii.  Producers fear punishment and the consumption of mahogany products
becomes desirable as consumers derive satisfaction from possessing illegal
goods.
(3 Marks)
iii.  In 2008, the Brazilian government significantly improved its monitoring of
illegal harvesting, enforced the law, and increased penalties for illegal
harvesting. Producers fear punishment and there is no change in the
desirability of mahogany.
(3 Marks)
(3 + 3 + 3 = 9 Marks Total for (c))
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
~  6 ~
(d) An economist advises the Brazilian government that the tax discussed in (a) above
will be ineffective in reducing the harvesting of mahogany if the demand for
mahogany is very inelastic. Her advice is that a more effective way to reduce
mahogany harvesting is to reduce demand for mahogany. Use a diagram to
explain the logic behind this economist’s advice.
(8 Marks)
(27 Marks Total for Task A)
Task B: Production Decisions
For this task we consider some of the incentives faced by producers and their
production decisions.
(a) According to an OECD report (2007, p. 19-20): “Illegal wood is not burdened by
taxes, stumpage fees and expenses for compliance with forest and environmental
regulations. It is therefore cheaper to produce than legal wood. … illegal logging
is substantially more profitable than the legal kind and that there is therefore a
clear financial incentive to engage in illegal activities.”
For questions (i) to (iii) below we will compare legal to illegal harvesting. For these
questions assume that demand remains the same for both legal and illegal
operators and assume that there are numerous competing firms with no barriers
to entry or exit.
i.  Harvesting mahogany was legal until 2001. With the aid of a diagram illustrate
the profit maximising production decision of firms that were legally harvesting
mahogany.
(3 Marks)
ii.  In 1999 the Brazilian government revoked 85% of harvesting licenses.
However, there was little attempt to enforce the law; firms were able to sell
mahogany in the guise of other types of timber and illegal trade was enabled
by corrupt officials. Moreover, firms that operated illegally no longer needed
to meet regulatory requirements and could avoid paying taxes. On the same
diagram as (i) above, illustrate and explain the incentives and short-run profit
maximising production decisions of firms that are illegally harvesting
mahogany. (For this question assume that the total number of firms remains
unchanged; firms that lose their license to operate legally are replaced by firms
who operate illegally.)
(5 Marks)
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
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iii.  Now consider what happens if the Brazilian government starts to enforce the
law to prevent illegal harvesting. What happens to the operating cost
differences between legal and illegal harvesting firms? Explain your reasoning.
(No diagrams are required for this question.)
(2 Marks)
(3 + 5 + 2 = 10 Marks)
(b) A Greenpeace report (2001, p. 8) argued that the Brazilian mahogany trade: “is
dominated by a small élite group of sawmills and exporters controlled largely by
two powerful players: Moisés Carvalho Pereira and Osmar Alves Ferreira.
Between them, these two mahogany kings …. control over 80% of the total
mahogany timber export trade from Pará.”
i.  If Greenpeace’s depiction is correct, what does it imply about the structure of
the mahogany market? Explain your reasoning.
(2 Marks)
ii.  Instead of competing against each other, Pereira and Ferreira decide to
collude.
1. With the aid of a diagram illustrate and explain the consequences on the
price of mahogany and profits for the mahogany kings in the short-run.
(5 Marks)
2. What is the impact of collusion on the health of the mahogany tree
population?
(1 Mark)
3. Is collusion between the mahogany kings a sustainable long-run strategy?
Explain your answer.
(3 Marks)
(2 + 5 + 1 + 3 = 11 Marks Total for (b))
(21 Marks Total for Task B)
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
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Task C: Impact on the Homicide Rate
Recall from the Background section to this assignment and Figure 3 above, that the
2001 ban on harvesting did not actually reduce harvesting. Instead, firms resorted to
illegal harvesting, falsely classifying mahogany as other tropical timber. During this
period, disputes erupted between rival firms that were settled outside the justice
system, often with violence. For this next task we wish to test whether violence did
increase as a result of the ban on mahogany harvesting.
You will need to use the data provided in the Excel file Mahogany and Homicide in the
Assignment 1 – Individual Assignment folder (within the Assessment Resources folder) to
assess the impact of the banning of mahogany harvesting on homicide in Brazil. The
data relate to the period 1995 to 2013 for 128 municipalities in the Pará province of
Brazil; 70% of Brazilian mahogany grows in this province. The sample contains 2,432
observations on the homicide rate in these municipalities (128 municipalities for 19
years = 2,432 observations). This type of data is known as panel data. The homicide
rate is calculated as the number of homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. The data come
from: Chimeli, A. B. and Soares, R. R. The Use of Violence in Illegal Markets: Evidence
from Mahogany Trade in the Brazilian Amazon, American Economic Journal: Applied
Economics, forthcoming. 3 However, you do not need to read this study. Note that you
can use Excel or any other software to construct the graph and calculate averages
required in (a) and (b) below.
(a) Construct a graph of the homicide rate for all Pará municipalities, for the years
1995 to 2013.
(5 Marks)
(b) Using the data provided complete Table 1 below. For this question, you need to
calculate the average homicide rate for the four time periods listed in Column (1)
of the table. Report the average homicide rate for all mahogany growing areas in
Column (2), and the average homicide rate for areas without mahogany in Column
(3). In Column (4) report the difference in the homicide rate between areas with
mahogany and areas without mahogany. 4 (Hint: you will find these calculations
much easier if you sort the data by mahogany growing area and by year. This can
be done in Excel.)
3 Web address for the article is: https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/app.20160055. You can
only access this article if you are a member of the American Economic Association. A working paper of
an older version of this study can be found at: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5923.pdf.
4 This type of analysis is known as a difference-in-difference analysis and is very common in the
evaluation of various government and business policies.
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
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Table 1: Comparison of average homicide rates,
municipalities with and without mahogany, different periods
Period
(1)

经济学原理MAE101  Individual Assignment  代写

Areas with
mahogany
(2)
Areas without
mahogany
(3)
Homicide rate
difference between
municipalities
(4)
Pre-1999.
Pre major government
intervention
1999 to 2001.
85% of licenses revoked
2001-2008.
Harvesting banned
Post-2008.
The law is enforced
(10 Marks)
(c) What conclusions can you draw from your above graph and calculations regarding
the average homicide rate after mahogany trade became illegal?
(2 Marks)
(17 Marks Total for Task C)
Task D: Lessons and Reflections
According to Chimeli and Soares (2017), making mahogany harvesting illegal resulted
in 5,171 additional deaths. The aim of this task is to reflect back on Brazil’s experience
with various interventions in the mahogany market.
(a) What lessons can be learnt by other countries from Brazil’s experience regarding
(i) the regulation and taxation, and (ii) the abolition of undesirable economic
activities and the unintended consequences of government intervention?
(5 Marks)
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
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(b) One of the principles of economics is that rational self-interest can maximize social
welfare. However, there are also legitimate concerns for the survival of mahogany
and other species and the adverse consequences from deforestation in general.
i.  Explain why unregulated harvesting can lead to market failure, e.g., more
harvesting than is socially desirable.
(5 Marks)
ii.  In addition to the above government interventions, several market based
solutions have been implemented or considered.
1. One market solution is to grow mahogany in other countries. Brazil has a
natural geographic advantage in growing mahogany. Referring to
opportunity cost, explain what is likely to happen to the cost of growing
mahogany now that Brazil is no longer a producer?
(2 Marks)
2. Discuss one other solution that the market might come up with to reduce
the danger of species extinction? (Hint: consider factors that shift the
demand or supply of mahogany.)
(3 Marks)
(15 Marks Total for Task D)
END OF ASSIGNMENT 1 TASKS
MAE101  Individual Assignment  T2, 2017
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REFERENCES
Please note that you do not need to read any of the below references. The lecture
notes and textbook are sufficient to answer all the tasks in this assignment.
1. Chimeli, A. B. and Soares, R. R. The Use of Violence in Illegal Markets: Evidence
from Mahogany Trade in the Brazilian Amazon, American Economic Journal: Applied
Economics, forthcoming.
2. Contreras-Hermosilla, A., Doornbosch, R., and Lodge, M. 2007. The Economics of
Illegal Logging and Associated Trade, OECD, Paris, 8-9 January 2007
https://www.oecd.org/sd-roundtable/papersandpublications/39348796.pdf.
Accessed July 6 th , 2017.
3. Greenpeace. 2001. Partners in Mahogany Crime: Amazon at the mercy of ‘gentlemen’s
agreements’.  Greenpeace  International,  Amsterdam.
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/PageFiles/26258/Mahoganyweb.pdf.
Accessed July 1 st , 2017.
4. Wallace,  S.  2013.  Mahogany’s  Last  Stand.  National  Geographic.
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/04/mahogany/wallace-text. April 2013.
Accessed July 1 st , 2017.
5. World Bank. 2012. Justice for Forests Improving Criminal Justice Efforts to Combat
Illegal  Logging.  The  World  Bank,  Washington.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTFINANCIALSECTOR/Resources/Illegal_
Logging.pdf. Accessed July 1 st , 2017.
经济学原理MAE101  Individual Assignment